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Bologna


:''"Bologne" (with "e") redirects here. For other uses, see Bologne (disambiguation).''


Bologna (; Emilian: ''Bulåggna'' pronounced ; Bononia) is the largest city (and the capital) of Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populated in Italy, heart of a metropolitan area (officially recognized by the Italian Government as a ''città metropolitana'') of about one million.

The city, the first settlements of which date back to at least one 1000 BC, has always been an important urban centre, first under the Etruscans (Velzna/Felsina) and the Celts (''Bona''), then under the Romans (''Bononia''), then again in the Middle Ages, as a free municipality (for one century it was the fifth largest European city based on population). Home to the oldest university in the world, University of Bologna, founded in 1088, Bologna hosts thousands of students who enrich the social and cultural life of the city. Famous for its towers and lengthy porticoes, Bologna has a well-preserved historical centre (one of the largest in Italy) thanks to a careful restoration and conservation policy which began at the end of the 1970s, on the heels of serious damage done by the urban demolition at the end of the 19th century as well as that caused by wars.

An important cultural and artistic centre, its importance in terms of landmarks can be attributed to homogenous mixture of monuments and architectural examples (medieval towers, antique buildings, churches, the layout of its historical centre) as well as works of art which are the result of a first class architectural and artistic history. Bologna is also an important transportation crossroad for the roads and trains of Northern Italy, where many important mechanical, electronic and nutritional industries have their headquarters. According to the most recent data gathered by the European Regional Economic Growth Index (E-REGI) of 2009, Bologna is the first Italian city and the 47th European city in terms of its economic growth rate. [http://www.citymayors.com/economics/europe-growth-cities.html]

Bologna is home to prestigious cultural, economic and political institutions as well as one of the most impressive trade fair districts in Europe. In 2000 it was declared European capital of culture and in 2006, a UNESCO “city of music”. The city of Bologna was selected to participate in the Universal Exposition of Shanghai 2010 together with 45 other cities from around the world.
Bologna is also one of the wealthiest cities in Italy, often ranking as one of the top cities in terms of quality of life in the country: in 2011 it ranked 1st out of 107 Italian cities.

History




Etruscan, Celtic and Roman times


The area around Bologna has been inhabited since the 9th century BC, as evidenced by the archeological digs in the 19th century in nearby Villanova. This period, and up to the 6th century, is in fact generally referred to as villanovian, and had various nuclei of people spread out around this area. In the 7th and 6th centuries BC, Etruria began to have an influence on this area, and the population went from Umbrian to Etruscan. The town was renamed Felsina.

In the 4th century BC, the city and the surrounding area were conquered by the Boii, a Celtic tribe from Transalpine Gaul. The tribe settled down and mixed so well with the Etruscans, after a brief period of aggression, that they created a civilization that modern historians call Gaul-Etruscan (one of the best examples is the archeological complex of Monte Bibele, in the Apennines near Bologna). The Gauls dominated the area until 196 BC, when they were sacked by the Romans. After the Battle of Telamon, in which the forces of the Boii and their allies were badly beaten, the tribe reluctantly accepted the influence of the Roman Republic, but with the outbreak of the Punic Wars the Celts once more went on a war path. They first helped Hannibal's army cross the Alps then they supplied him with a consistent force of infantry that proved itself decisive in several battles. With the downfall of the Carthaginians came the end of the Boii as a free people, the Romans destroyed many settlements and villages (Monte Bibele is one of them) and then founded the colonia of Bononia in c. 189 BC. The settlers included three thousand Latin families led by the consul Lucius Valerius Flaccus. The Celtic population was ultimately absorbed into the Roman society but the language has survived in some measure in the Bolognese dialect, which linguists say belongs to the Gallo-Italic group of languages and dialects. The building of the Via Aemilia in 187 BC made Bologna an important centre, connected to Arezzo by way of the Via Flaminia minor and to Aquileia through the Via Aemilia Altinate.

In 88 BC, the city became a municipium: it had a rectilinear street plan with six cardi and eight decumani (intersecting streets) which are still discernible today. During the Roman era, its population varied between c. 12,000 to c. 30,000. At its peak, it was the second city of Italy, and one of the most important of all the Empire, with various temples and baths, a theatre, and an arena. Pomponius Mela included Bononia among the five opulentissimae ("richest") cities of Italy. Although fire damaged the city during the reign of Claudius, the Roman Emperor Nero rebuilt it in the 1st century AD.

After the fall of the Empire, this area fell under the power of Odoacre, Theodore the Great (493-526), Byzantium and finally the Longobards, who used it mostly as a military centre. In 774, the city fell to Charlemagne, who gave it to Pope Adrian I.

Middle Ages


Porta Maggiore, Strada Maggiore (Maggiore Street) and Torre degli Asinelli

After a long decline, Bologna was reborn in the 5th century under Bishop Petronius. According to legend, St. Petronius built the church of S. Stefano. After the fall of Rome, Bologna was a frontier stronghold of the Exarchate of Ravenna in the Po plain, and was defended by a line of walls which did not enclose most of the ancient ruined Roman city. In 728, the city was captured by the Lombard king Liutprand, becoming part of the Lombard Kingdom. The Germanic conquerors formed a district called "addizione longobarda" near the complex of S. Stefano. Charlemagne stayed in this district in 786.

In the 11th century, Bologna began to aspire to being a free commune, which it was able to do when Matilda of Tuscany died, in 1115, and the following year the city obtained many judicial and economic concessions from Henry V. Bologna joined the Lombard League against Frederick Barbarossa in 1164 which ended with the Peace of Costanza in 1183; after which, the city began to expand rapidly (this is the period in which its famous towers were built) and it became one of the main commercial trade centres thanks to a system of canals that allowed large ships to come and go. Depiction of a 14th-century fight between the militias of the Guelf and Ghibelline factions in Bologna, from the Croniche of Giovanni Sercambi of Lucca.

Traditionally said to be founded in 1088, the University of Bologna is widely considered to be the first university.Hunt Janin: "The university in medieval life, 1179–1499", McFarland, 2008, ISBN 0-7864-3462-7, p. 55f.de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde: [http://books.google.com/books?id=5Z1VBEbF0HAC&printsec=frontcover ''A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages''], Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. 47–55 The university originated as an international centre of study of medieval Roman law under major glossators, including Irnerius. It numbered Dante, Boccaccio and Petrarca among its students.[http://www.unibo.it/Portale/Ateneo/La+nostra+storia/NoveSecoli.htm Nove secoli di storia] - Università di Bologna

In the 12th century, the expanding city needed a new line of walls, and at the end of the 13th century, Bologna had between 50,000 and 60,000 inhabitants making it the fifth largest city in Europe (after Cordova, Paris, Venice, and Florence) and tied with Milan as the biggest textile industry area in Italy.

The complex system of canals in Bologna was one of the most advanced waterway systems in Europe, and took its water from the Savena, Aposa and Reno Rivers. The main canals were Canale Navile, Canale di Reno and Canale di Savena. Hydraulic energy derived from the canal system helped run the numerous textile mills and transport goods. Now these canals are located under the city and some can even be visited on organized rafting tours.
San Petronio Basilica.
In 1256, Bologna promulgated the "Paradise Law", which abolished feudal serfdom and freed the slaves, using public money. At that time the city centre was full of towers (perhaps 180), built by the leading families, notable public edifices, churches, and abbeys. In the 1270s Bologna's politics was dominated by Luchetto Gattilusio, a Genoese diplomat and man of letters who became the city Governor. Like most Italian cities of that age, Bologna was torn by internal struggles related to the Guelph and Ghibelline factions, which led to the expulsion of the Ghibelline family of the Lambertazzi in 1274.

After this period of great prosperity, Bologna experienced some ups and downs: it was crushed in the Battle of Zappolino by the Modenese in 1325 but then prospered under the rule of Taddeo Pepoli (1337–1347). Then in 1348, during the Black Plague, about 30,000 inhabitants died, and it subsequently fell to the Visconti of Milan, but returned to Papal control under Cardinal Gil de Albornoz in 1360. In the following years, Republican governments like that of 1377, which was responsible for the building of the Basilica di San Petronio and the Loggia dei Mercanti, alternated with Papal or Visconti resurgences, while the city's families engaged in continual internecine fighting.

Early modern


Bologna in 1640.

In 1337, the rule of the noble Pepoli family, nicknamed by some scholars as the "underground nobles" as they governed as "the first among equals" rather than as true nobles of the city. This noble family's rule was in many ways an extension of past rules, and resisted until March 28, 1401 when the Bentivoglio family took over.
The Bentivoglio family ruled Bologna, first with Sante (1445–1462) and then under Giovanni II (1462–1506). This period was a flourishing one for the city, with the presence of notable architects and painters who made Bologna a true city of art. During the Renaissance, Bologna was the only Italian city that allowed women to excel in any profession. Women had much more freedom than in other Italian cities; some even had the opportunity to earn a degree at the university. The School of Bologna of painting flourished in Bologna between the 16th and 17th centuries, and rivalled Florence and Rome as the centre of painting.

Giovanni's reign ended in 1506 when the Papal troops of Julius II besieged Bologna and sacked the artistic treasures of his palace. From that point on, until the 18th century, Bologna was part of the Papal States, ruled by a cardinal legato and by a Senate which every two months elected a gonfaloniere (judge), assisted by eight elder consuls. In 1530, in front of Saint Petronio Church, Charles V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII.

Then a plague at the end of the 16th century reduced the population from 72,000 to 59,000, and another in 1630 to 47,000. The population later recovered to a stable 60,000–65,000. However, there was also great progress during this era: in 1564, the Piazza del Nettuno and the Palazzo dei Banchi were built, along with the Archiginnasio, the centre of the University. The period of Papal rule saw the construction of many churches and other religious establishments, and the reincarnation of older ones. At this time, Bologna had ninety-six convents, more than any other Italian city. Artists working during this period in Bologna established the Bolognese School which includes Annibale Carracci, Domenichino, Guercino and others of European fame.

Late modern and contemporary


Piazza del Nettuno in 1855, looking towards Piazza Maggiore.
In 1796, Napoleon took Bologna with his French troops, and with the rise of Napoleon, Bologna became the capital of the short lived Cispadane Republic. After the fall of Napoleon, and the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Bologna once again fell under the sovereignty of the Papal States, rising up in 1831 and again in 1849, when it temporarily expelled the Austrian garrisons which controlled the city. After a visit by Pope Pius IX in 1857, on 12 June 1859 the city voted in favour of annexation by the Kingdom of Sardinia, soon to become the Kingdom of Italy.

Bologna was bombed heavily during World War II. The strategic importance of the city as industrial and railway hub connecting northern and central Italy made it a strategic target for the Allied forces. On July 16, 1943 a massive aerial bombardment destroyed much of the historic city centre and killed scores of people. The main railway station and adjoining areas were severely hit, and 44% of the buildings in the centre were listed as having been destroyed or severely damaged. The city was heavily bombed again on September 25. The raids, which this time were not confined to the city centre, left 936 people dead and thousands injured.

Aftermath of the 1980 station bombing.

During the war, the city was also a key centre of the Italian resistance movement. On November 7, 1944, a pitched battle around ''Porta Lame'', waged by partisans of the 7th Brigade of the ''Gruppi d'Azione Patriottica'' against Fascist and Nazi occupation forces, did not succeed in triggering a general uprising, despite being one of the largest resistance-led urban conflicts in the European theater. Resistance forces entered Bologna on the morning of April 21, 1945. By this time, the Germans had already largely left the city in the face of the Allied advance, spearheaded by Polish forces advancing from the east during the Battle of Bologna which had been since April 9. First to arrive in the centre was the 87th Infantry Regiment of the Friuli Combat Group under general Arturo Scattini, who entered the centre from ''Porta Maggiore'' to the south. Since the soldiers were dressed in British outfits, they were initially thought to be part of the allied forces; when the local inhabitants heard the soldiers were speaking Italian, they poured out on to the streets to celebrate. Polish reconnaissance units of the Polish 2nd Corps entered Bologna from another direction on the same morning as the Friuli Combat Group. The fighting to oust the Germans from the town had been mostly undertaken by Polish troops.

After World War II, Bologna became a thriving industrial centre as well as a political stronghold of the Italian Communist Party, leading the Italian political "Red Quadrilateral". The city, from 1945 to 1999, had an uninterrupted series of left wing mayors, the first and best known of whom was Giuseppe Dozza. At the apex of the so-called Years of Lead, on August 2, 1980, a bomb exploded in the central railway station in Bologna killing 85 people, wounding 200: this event became known as the massacre of Bologna. Two people were convicted: Valerio Fioravanti and Francesca Mambro, both of them neo-fascists from the group Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari, while former Grand Master of the Freemason lodge P2 Licio Gelli, former agent of SISMI Francesco Pazienza, and military secret service officers Pietro Musumeci and Giuseppe Belmonte were convicted for hampering the investigation. In 1999 the long tradition of left-wing mayors was interrupted by the victory of conservative Giorgio Guazzaloca; this brief experience ended in 2004 when Sergio Cofferati, a former trade union leader, was elected. The next centre-left mayor, Flavio Delbono, elected in June 2009, resigned in January 2010 after being involved in a corruption scandal. He was eventually succeeded by Virginio Merola, who led a left-wing coalition composed by Democratic Party, Left Ecology Freedom and Italy of Values.

Geography




Territory


Aerial photograph of Bologna.
Bologna is situated on the edge of the Po Plain at the foot of the Apennine Mountains, at the meeting of the Reno and Savena river valleys. As Bologna's two main watercourses flow directly to the sea, the town lies outside of the drainage basin of the River Po. The Province of Bologna stretches from the western edge of the Po Plain on the border with Ferrara to the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines. The centre of the town is 54 meters above sea level (while elevation within the municipality ranges from 29 m in the suburb of Corticella to 300m in Sabbiuno and the Colle della Guardia). The Province of Bologna stretches from the Po Plain into the Apennines, its highest point being the peak of Corno alle Scale (in Lizzano in Belvedere) at 1,945 m above sea level.

Climate


Bologna has a humid subtropical climate, with little influence from the sea; the climatic classification is "zone E, 2259 GR/G".
Winters can be cold ( was recorded in Molinella on the night of January 12, 1985).

The record lows recorded in the last twenty years are around , while summers are hot and muggy due to the high humidity in this area, and they can be long with long periods of drought (as in 2003); in July and August it is normal for temperatures to rise above .[http://www.comune.bologna.it/iperbole/piancont/dati_statistici/Indici/Ambiente%20e%20territorio/index.htm comune.bologna.it: Dati statistici temperature e precipitazioni dal 1991 al 2009]

Annual precipitation oscillates between around 450mm and 900mm, with the majority generally falling in spring and autumn.

Moderate wind contributes to the formation of fog and haze and to an elevated smog due to local traffic, as well as to the combustion in heating systems (most of which have been converted to methane gas) and industrial establishments. Occasionally, despite all of this, there have been days with gusts up to 120km/hour (for example on December 26, 1996) due to the winds coming down off the mountains (sometimes the buran from the Siberian steppe reaches the foot of the Apennines); during the month of August, in particular, strong gusts of more than 100km/hour have been recorded during localized storms.



Main sights



Panoramic view of central Bologna.
Palazzo del Podestà in Piazza Maggiore
:''For a complete list, see Buildings and structures in Bologna

The Two Towers.
Giambologna's Fountain of Neptune in Piazza Maggiore.
Basilica of San Petronio, interior view.
Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca.

Until the early 19th century, when a large-scale urban reconstruction project was undertaken, Bologna remained one of the best-preserved walled medieval cities in Europe; to this day it remains unique in its historic value. Despite having suffered considerable bombing damage in 1944, Bologna's historic centre today is Europe's second largest, containing an immense wealth of important Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque artistic monuments.

Bologna developed along the Via Emilia as an Etruscan and later Roman colony; the Via Emilia still runs straight through the city under the changing names of Strada Maggiore, Rizzoli, Ugo Bassi, and San Felice. Due to its Roman heritage, the central streets of Bologna, today largely pedestrianized, follow the grid pattern of the Roman settlement.

The original Roman ramparts were supplanted by a high medieval system of fortifications, remains of which are still visible, and finally by a third and final set of ramparts built in the 13th century, of which numerous sections survive. No more than twenty medieval defensive towers remain out of up to 180 that were built in the 12th and 13th centuries before the arrival of unified civic government. The most famous of the towers of Bologna are the central "two towers" (''Asinelli'' and ''Garisenda''), whose iconic leaning forms provide a popular symbol of the town.

The cityscape is further enriched by elegant and extensive arcades (or porticos), for which the city is famous. In total, there are some 38 kilometres of arcades in the city's historical centre (over 45km in the city proper), which make it possible to walk for long distances sheltered from the elements.

The Portico of San Luca is one of the longest arcades in the world. It connects Porta Saragozza (one of the twelve gates of the ancient walls built in the Middle Ages, which circled a 7.5km part of the city) with the Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca, a church begun in 1723 on the site of an 11th-century edifice which had already been enlarged in the 14th century, prominently located on a hill (289 m) overlooking the town, which is one of Bologna's main landmarks. The winding 666 vault arcade, almost four kilometres (3,796 m) long, effectively links San Luca, as the church is commonly called, to the centre of town. Its porticos provide shelter for the traditional procession which every year since 1433 has carried a Byzantine icon of the Madonna with Child attributed to Luke the Evangelist down to the cathedral during Ascension week.

Bologna is home to many other notable churches. These include:

*San Petronio Basilica, one of the world's largest
*Bologna Cathedral
*St. Stephen basilica and sanctuary
*St. Dominic basilica and sanctuary
*St. Francis basilica
*Santa Maria dei Servi basilica
*San Giacomo Maggiore basilica (13th-14th century), featuring numerous Renaissance artworks such as Lorenzo Costa the Elder's Bentivoglio Altarpiece
*San Michele in Bosco

Economy



Fiera business district and seat of the Regional Assembly.

Bologna is an important railway and motorway hub in Italy. The economy of Bologna is characterized by a flourishing industrial sector, traditionally based on the transformation of agricultural and zootechnical products. It also includes machinery (Coesia), automobiles, footwear, textile, engineering, chemical, printing and publishing industries, as well as a strong financial, insurance (Unipol) and commercial (Coop Italia) activity. The city's Fiera District (exhibition centre) is one of the largest in Europe, with important yearly international expos focused on the automobile sector (Bologna Motor Show), ceramics for the building industry (International Exhibition of Ceramic Tiles and Bathroom Furnishings) and food industry. In addition, several important firms in the fields of automobiles (Lamborghini), motorcycles (Ducati), mechanics, food, tobacco and electronics have their headquarters in the urban area of Bologna, as well as important retail and wholesale trade (the "Centergross" in Argelato, esabilished in 1973), and one of the largest Italian food processing companies (Conserve Italia).

Transport


Guglielmo Marconi International Airport.
Bologna is home to the Guglielmo Marconi International Airport, recently expanded to accommodate larger aircraft. Today, it is the seventh busiest Italian airport for passenger traffic (almost 6 million passengers handled in 2011). Bologna Centrale railway station is one of the most important train hubs in Italy thanks to the city's strategic location. It serves 5.8 million passengers annually. Also, its goods-station (San Donato) with its 33 railway tracks, is the largest in Italy in size and traffic. The city is also served by a large network of public bus lines, run by Azienda Trasporti Pubblici Bologna (ATC).

Demographics



At the end of 2010, the city proper had a population of 380,604 (while 1 million live in the greater Bologna area), located in the province of Bologna, Emilia Romagna, of whom 46.7% were male and 53.3% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 12.86 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 27.02 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Bologna resident is 51 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Bologna grew by 0.0 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The current birth rate of Bologna is 8.07 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

As of 2009, 89.47% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group came from other European countries (mostly Romanians and Albanians): 2.82%, East Asia (mostly Filipino): 1.50%, and the South Asia (mostly from Bangladesh): 1.39%.

Education



The University of Bologna is Europe's oldest, founded in 1088.
The University of Bologna, founded in 1088, is the oldest existing university in the world, and was an important centre of European intellectual life during the Middle Ages, attracting scholars from throughout Christendom. A unique heritage of medieval art, exemplified by the illuminated manuscripts and jurists' tombs produced in the city from the 13th to the 15th centuries, provides a cultural backdrop to the renown of the medieval institution. The Studium, as it was originally known, began as a loosely organized teaching system with each master collecting fees from students on an individual basis. The location of the early University was thus spread throughout the city, with various colleges being founded to support students of a specific nationality.University anatomical theatre, 1637.

In the Napoleonic era, the headquarters of the university were moved to their present location on Via Zamboni (formerly Via San Donato), in the north-eastern sector of the city centre. Today, the University's 23 faculties, 68 departments, and 93 libraries are spread across the city and include four subsidiary campuses in nearby Cesena, Forlì, Ravenna, and Rimini. Noteworthy students present at the university in centuries past included Dante, Petrarch, Thomas Becket, Pope Nicholas V, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Peter Martyr Vermigli, and Copernicus. Laura Bassi, appointed in 1732, became the first woman to officially teach at a college in Europe. In more recent history, Luigi Galvani, the discoverer of biological electricity, and Guglielmo Marconi, the pioneer of radio technology, also worked at the University. The University of Bologna remains one of the most respected and dynamic post-secondary educational institutions in Italy. To this day, Bologna is still very much a university town, and the city's population swells from 400,000 to over 500,000 whenever classes are in session. This community includes a great number of Erasmus, Socrates, and overseas students.

The University of Bologna is also the birthplace of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity. It was founded by Manuel Chrysoloras in 1400. The fraternity was formed for mutual protection against Baldassare Cossa, who extorted and robbed the students of the university, and later usurped the papacy under the name John XXIII.

The university's botanical garden, the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Bologna, was established in 1568; it is the fourth oldest in Europe.

Bologna is also home to other universities such as the Bologna Centre of Johns Hopkins University.

Culture



The International museum and library of music displays ancient musical instruments and unique musical scores from the 16th to the 20th centuries.

Over the centuries, Bologna has acquired many nicknames: "the learned one" (''la dotta'') is a reference to its university; "the fat one" (''la grassa'') refers to its cuisine.

"The red one" (''la rossa'') originally refers to the colour of the roofs in the historic centre, but this nickname is also connected to the political situation in the city, started after World War II: until the election of a centre-right mayor in 1999, the city was renowned as a bastion of socialism and communism in particular the Italian Communist Party. The centre-left regained power again in the 2004 mayoral elections, with the election of Sergio Cofferati. It was one of the first European cities to experiment with the concept of free public transport.

The city of Bologna was appointed a UNESCO City of Music on 26 May 2006. According to UNESCO, "As the first Italian city to be appointed to the Network, Bologna has demonstrated a rich musical tradition that is continuing to evolve as a vibrant factor of contemporary life and creation. It has also shown a strong commitment to promoting music as an important vehicle for inclusion in the fight against racism and in an effort to encourage economic and social development. Fostering a wide range of genres from classical to electronic, jazz, folk and opera, Bologna offers its citizens a musical vitality that deeply infiltrates the city’s professional, academic, social and cultural facets."

Entertainment and performing arts


Façade of "Arena del Sole" theatre.
The theatre was a popular form of entertainment in Bologna until the 16th century. The first public theater was the Teatro alla Scala, active since 1547 in Palazzo del Podestà.

An important figure of Italian Bolognese theatre was Alfredo Testoni, the playwright, author of ''The Cardinal Lambertini'', which had great theatrical success since 1905, then repeated on the screen by the Bolognese actor Gino Cervi.

In 1998, the City of Bologna has initiated the project "Bologna dei Teatri" (Bologna of the Theatres), an association of the major theatrical facilities in the city. This is a circuit of theatres which offer diverse and colourful cultural and theatrical opportunities, ranging from Bolognese dialect to contemporary dance, but with a communications strategy and promoting unity. Specifically, the shows on the bill in various theatres participating in the project are advertised weekly through a single poster.

Bologna's opera house is the Teatro Comunale di Bologna.

The Orchestra Mozart, whose music director is Claudio Abbado, was created in 2004.

Bologna hosts a number of festivals and other events, including:

*Angelica: International Contemporary Music Festival
*Bologna Contemporanea: international festival on contemporary
*Bolognafestival: international classical music festival
*Bologna Jazz Festival: the Italian autumn jazz event
*Biografilm Festival: International Film Festival devote to Biography
*BilBolBul:International Comic Festival
*Casadeipensieri: International Summer Festival of literature and poetry
*Danza Urbana: International Street Contemporary Dance Festival
*F.I.S.Co: International Festival on Contemporary art (now merged in Live Arts Week)
*Future Film Festival: International Festival on animation and special effects.
*Il Cinema Ritrovato: International Film Festival about Forgotten Films
*Live Arts Week
*Gender Bender: International Festival on the gender identity, sexual orientation and body representation
*Homework festival: electronic music festival
*Human Rights Film Festival
*Netmage: International Festival dedicated to Electronic Art (now merged in Live Arts Week)
*Some Prefer cake: Italian lesbian film festival

Cuisine


Mortadella, fried ''crescentine'', salami and Lambrusco wine: characteristic Bologna fare.
Bologna is renowned for its culinary tradition. It has given its name to the well-known Bolognese sauce, a meat based pasta sauce called in Italy ''ragù alla bolognese'' but in the city itself just ''ragù'' as in ''Tagliatelle al ragù''. Situated in the fertile Po River Valley, the rich local cuisine depends heavily on meats and cheeses. As in all of Emilia-Romagna, the production of cured pork meats such as prosciutto, mortadella and salami is an important part of the local food industry. Well-regarded nearby vineyards include Pignoletto dei Colli Bolognesi, Lambrusco di Modena and Sangiovese di Romagna. Tagliatelle with ragù, lasagne, tortellini served in broth, and mortadella, the original Bologna sausage, are among the local specialties. Traditional Bolognese desserts are often linked to holidays, such as fave dei morti, multi-colored almond paste cookies made for All Saints' Day, jam-filled raviole cookies that are served on Saint Joseph's Day, and carnival sweets known as sfrappole. Torta di riso, a custard-like cake made of almonds, rice and amaretto, is made throughout the year.

Sports


A sporting nickname for Bologna is ''Basket City'' in reference to the successes of the town's two rival historic basketball clubs, Fortitudo and Virtus (though the clubs are now often referred to by the names of their current sponsors). However, the rivalry is temporarily dormant because Fortitudo is no longer in the country's professional ranks. After the 2008–09 season, Fortitudo was relegated from the top-level Lega A to LegADue, and then was relegated further to the nominally amateur Serie A Dilettanti for financial reasons. For the season 2012-13, Fortitudo will play in the LegADue.
The presence of basketball in the city is not limited to the two big clubs; the Italian Basketball League, which operates both Lega A and LegADue, has its headquarters in Bologna.

Football is still a highly popular sport in Bologna; the main local club is Bologna F.C. 1909, which is currently in Serie A ([http://www.bolognafc.it/ Official BolognaFC website]).

Some notable people from Bologna



* Aldrovandus (Ulisse Aldrovandi, naturalist, 1522–1605)
* Antonio Alessandrini (anatomist and parasitologist, 1786–1861)
* Maria Gaetana Agnesi (mathematician, humanitarian, and linguist, 1718–1799)
* Amico Aspertini (painter, c. 1474–1552)
* Pupi Avati (director, born 1938)
* Riccardo Bacchelli (writer, 1891-1985)
* Adriano Banchieri (composer, 1568–1634)
* Agostino Barelli (architect, 1627–1687)
* Antonio Basoli (painter and scene designer, 1774–1848)
* Laura Bassi (scientist, first female appointed to university chair in Europe, 1711–1788)
* Ugo Bassi (Italian nationalist hero, executed for role in 1848 uprisings, 1800–1849)
* Stefano Benni (writer, born 1947)
* Benedict XIV (Prospero Lambertini, Pope 1740–58)
* Giovanni II Bentivoglio (1443–1508)
* Giordano Berti (writer, born 1959)
* Amedeo Biavati (footballer, 1915–1979, credited with the invention of the stepover, World Champion 1938, played only for Bologna FC)
* Simone Bolelli (Professional Tennis Player, Born 1985)
* Giacomo Bolognini (painter, 1664–1734)
* Rafael Bombelli (mathematician, 1526-1572)
* Rossano Brazzi (actor, 1916–1994)
* Raffaella Carrà (singer, born 1943)
* Annibale Carracci (painter, 1560–1609)
* Lodovico Carracci (painter, 1555–1619)
* Agostino Carracci (painter, 1557–1602)
* Chiara Caselli (actress, born 1967)
* Pier Ferdinando Casini (politician, born 1955)
* Pietro Cataldi (mathematician, 1548–1626)
* Pierluigi Collina (football referee, born 1960)
* Alessandro Cortini (musician, born 1976)
* Giuseppe Maria Crespi (painter, 1665–1747)
* Donato Creti (painter, 1671–1749)
* Scipione del Ferro (mathematician, solved the cubic equation, 1465–1526)
* Francesco Francia (Francesco Raibolini, painter, c. 1450–1517)
* Lucio Dalla (singer-songwriter, 1943–2012)
* Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri, painter, 1581–1641)
* Sara Errani (tennis player, born 1987)
* Gianfranco Fini (politician, born 1952)
* Aristotile Fioravanti (architect, c. 1415–c. 1486)
* Luigi Galvani (scientist, discoverer of bioelectricity, 1737–1798)
* Alessandro Gamberini, (footballer, born 1981)
* Serena Grandi (actress, born 1958)
* Gregory XIII (Ugo Boncompagni, Pope 1572–85, instituted the Gregorian Calendar)
* Gregory XV (Alessandro Ludovisi, Pope 1621-3)
* Il Guercino (Giovanni Barbieri, painter, 1591–1666)
* Irnerius (jurist, c. 1050 – at least 1125)
* Claudio Lolli (singer-songwriter, born 1950)
* Lucius II (Gherardo Caccianemici dell'Orso, Pope 1144-5)
* Marcello Malpighi (physiologist, anatomist and histologist, 1628–1694)
* Guglielmo Marconi (engineer, pioneer of wireless telegraphy, Nobel prize for Physics, 1874–1937)
* Giovanni Battista Martini (musical theorist, 1706–1784)
* Giuseppe Mezzofanti (cardinal, linguist and hyperpolyglot, 1774–1839)
* Marco Minghetti (economist and statesman, 1818–1886)
* Giorgio Morandi (painter, 1890–1964)
* Gianni Morandi (singer, born 1944)
* Edgardo Mortara ( Catholic priest that was the subject of the ''Mortara Case'' during the Risorgimento, 1851–1940 )
* Gianluca Pagliuca (footballer, born 1966)
* Pier Paolo Pasolini (writer, poet, director, 1922–1975)
* Roberto Regazzi (luthier, born 1956)
* Guido Reni (painter, 1575–1642)
* Ottorino Respighi (composer, 1879–1936)
* Augusto Righi (physicist, authority on electromagnetism, 1850–1920)
* Vasco Rossi (singer-songwriter, born 1952)
* Carlo Ruini (equine anatomist, 1530–1598)
* Angelo Schiavio (footballer, 1905–1990, scored the winning goal in overtime in the 1934 World Cup Final, played only for Bologna)
* Elisabetta Sirani (painter, 1638–1665)
* Alberto Tomba (skier, born 1966)
* Ondina Valla (first Italian woman Olympic gold medalist, 1916–2006)
* Mariele Ventre (teacher and educator, founder of Piccolo Coro dell' Antoniano choir, 1939–1995)
* Christian Vieri (footballer, born 1973)
* Vitale da Bologna (painter, fl. 1330, d 1361)
* Anteo Zamboni (anarchist who at the age of 15 attempted to assassinate Benito Mussolini, 1911–1926)
* Alex Zanardi (racing driver, born 1966)
* Marco Aurelio Zani de Ferranti (writer, musician, and composer, 1801–1878)

In addition to the natives of the city listed above, the following have made Bologna their home:
* Giosuè Carducci (poet and academic, Nobel Prize for Literature, born near Lucca, Tuscany, 1835–1907)
* Carlo Felice Cillario (Italian conductor of international renown, founder of the Bologna Chamber Orchestra in 1946 (February 7, 1915 – December 13, 2007)
* Umberto Eco (writer and academic, born in Alessandria, Piedmont, 1932)
* Enzio of Sardinia (born c. 1218, King of Sardinia and illegitimate son of Emperor Frederick II, was imprisoned in Palazzo Re Enzo from 1249 until his death in 1272)
* Vasco Errani (politician, born 1955)
* Alfonso Lombardi (sculptor, born in Ferrara, c. 1497-1537)
* Niccolò dell'Arca (sculptor, born in Bari, c. 1435-1440 – 2 March 1494)
* Juan Ignacio Molina (naturalist, born in Chile, 1740–1829)
* Giovanni Pascoli (poet and academic, born in San Mauro di Romagna, 1855–1912)
* St. Petronius (San Petronio, bishop of Bologna and patron saint of the city, birthplace unknown, died c. 450 AD)
* Romano Prodi (economist, politician, born in Scandiano, Reggio Emilia, 1939)
* Gioachino Rossini (opera composer, born in Pesaro, 1792–1868)
* Giuseppe Torelli (composer, born in Verona, 1658–1709)
* Wu Ming (collective of writers, active since 2000)
* Farinelli (Carlo Broschi, castrato opera singer, 1705–1782)

Notable companies



* COESIA Group - G.D (packaging)
* Coop (supermarket chain)
* Ducati Motor Holding (motorcycles)
* IMA S.p.A (packaging)
* Lamborghini (cars)
* Malaguti (motorcycles)
* Maserati (cars)
* Segafredo Zanetti – (coffee)
* Unipol – (bank and insurance)
* YOOX Group Spa – (Fashion / Online Apparel Retailer)

International relations





Twin towns – sister cities


Bologna is twinned with:


Bologna
Source: Wikipedia