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King Of Italy
::''See also; Queens of Italy''
King of Italy (''rex Italiae'' in Latin and ''re d'Italia'' in Italian) is a title adopted by many rulers of the Italian peninsula after the fall of the Roman Empire. However, no “King of Italy” ruled the whole peninsula until Victor Emmanuel in 1870, though some pretended to such authority.
After the deposition of Western Roman Emperor Romulus Augustulus in 476, Heruli leader Odoacer was appointed ''dux Italiae'' (Duke of Italy) by the reigning Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno. Later, he took the title of ''rex'' (not, as is sometimes said, ''rex italiae''), though he always presented himself as an officer of the eastern government. In 493, Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great defeated Odoacer, and set up a new dynasty of kings of Italy. Ostrogothic rule ended when Italy was reconquered by the Roman Empire in 552.
This state of affairs did not last long. In 568, the Lombards entered the peninsula and ventured to recreate a barbarian kingdom ''in opposition to'' the Empire, establishing their authority over much of Italy (especially Lombardy) except the Exarchate of Ravenna and the duchies Rome, Venetia, Naples and the southernmost portions. For the next two centuries, Lombards and Byzantines fought for dominance in the peninsula.
In the 8th century, estrangement between the Italian Romans and the Byzantine Empire allowed the Lombards to capture the remaining Roman enclaves in northern Italy. However, in 774, they were defeated by the Franks under Charlemagne, who deposed their king and took up the title ''rex Langobardorum'' ("King of the Lombards"). Within the Frankish Empire, Italy was ruled by a ''rex Italiae''. This Kingdom of Italy was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire by Otto I. All subsequent emperors used the title and most were crowned at some time in the ancient Lombard capital of Pavia before their imperial coronation in Rome. However the various emperors ruled only parts of Italy, and many independent states existed on the peninsula over the subsequent centuries, some of which were kingdoms, such as the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples.
By the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 most of the Italian territories of the Holy Roman Empire were lost to it and the Italian Crown held no significance thereafter, either ''de facto'' or ''de jure''. In 1805, Napoleon Bonaparte endeavoured to attach the Lombard heritage to France again and was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy in Pavia. The next year, the Emperor Francis II abdicated his Imperial title. From the deposition of Napoleon (1814) until the Italian Unification (1861), there was no Italian monarch claiming the overarching title. The ''Risorgimento'' successfully established a dynasty, the House of Savoy, over the whole peninsula, uniting the kingdoms of Sardinia and the Two Sicilies. The monarchy was superseded by the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana) after a referendum was held in 1946.
* Odoacer (476-493)
Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy (493–553)
*Theodoric the Great (493–526)
Kingdom of the Lombards (568–814)
:''Rule of the Dukes'' ''(ten year interregnum)''
*Aripert I (653–661)
*Perctarit and Godepert (661–662)
*Perctarit (671–688), restored from exile
*Alahis (688–689), rebel
*Aripert II (701–712)
Frankish Kingdom of Italy (781–963)
*Lothair I (818–855)
*Louis II (844–875)
*Charles II the Bald (875–877)
*Charles III the Fat (879–887)
After 887, Italy fell into instability, with many rulers claiming the Kingship simultaneously:
*Berengar I (888–896)
:vassal of the German King Arnulf of Carinthia, reduced to Fruili 889-894, deposed by Arnulf in 896.
*Guy of Spoleto (889–894)
:opponent of Berengar, ruled most of Italy but was deposed by Arnulf.
*Lambert of Spoleto (891–896)
:subking of his father Guy before 894, reduced to Spoleto 894-895.
*Arnulf of Carinthia (896–899)
**Ratold (sub-king 896)
In 896, Arnulf and Ratold lost control of Italy, which was divided between Berengar and Lambert:
*Berengar I (896–924)
:seized Lambert's portion upon the latter's death in 898.
*Lambert of Spoleto (896–898)
*Louis III of Provence (900-905)
:opposed Berengar 900-902 and 905.
*Rudolph II of Burgundy (922–933)
:defeated Berengar but fled Italy in 926.
*Hugh of Arles (926–947)
:elected by Berengar's partisans in 925, resigned to Provence after 945.
*Lothair II (945–950)
*Berengar II of Ivrea (950–961)
:jointly with his son:
*Adalbert of Ivrea (950–963)
In 951 Otto I of Germany invaded Italy and was crowned "King of the Lombards". In 952, Berengar and Adalbert became in vassals but remained Kings until being deposed by Otto.
Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire (962–1648)
[The numeral refers to his position both as King of Germany and as Holy Roman Emperor.] (951–973)
[The numeral refers to his position as King of Germany.] (1004–1024)
*Lothair III (1128–1137)
[The numeral refers to his position as Holy Roman Emperor.] (1327–1347)
Ferdinand I and his successor used the title of a ''King of Italy'', though they were never crowned as such:
The Peace of Westphalia effectively terminated any imperial claims to an Italian kingdom.
Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy (1805–1814)
| Napoleon I
1805–1814 || ||15 August 1769
son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino||Joséphine de Beauharnais
Marie Louise of Austria
11 March 1810
1 child||5 May 1821
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
| Victor Emmanuel II
1861–1878 || ||14 March 1820
son of Charles Albert of Sardinia and Maria Theresa of Tuscany||Maria Adelaide of Austria
Rosa Teresa Vercellana Guerrieri
2 children||9 January 1878
| Umberto I
1878–1900 || ||14 March 1844
son of Victor Emanuele II and Maria Adelaide of Austria ||Margherita of Savoy
22 April 1868
1 child||29 July 1900
| Victor Emmanuel III
1900–1946 || ||11 November 1869
son of Umberto I and Margherita of Savoy ||Elena of Montenegro
24 October 1896
5 children||28 December 1947
| Umberto II
1946 || ||15 September 1904
son of Victor Emmanuel III and Elena of Montenegro||Marie-José of Belgium
8 January 1930
4 children||18 March 1983
Full title of the Kings of Kingdom of Italy was:
[Name], ''by the Grace of God, King of Italy, King of Sardinia, Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia, Duke of Savoy, count of Maurienne, Marquis (of the Holy Roman Empire) in Italy; prince of Piedmont, Carignano, Oneglia, Poirino, Trino; Prince and Perpetual vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; prince of Carmagnola, Montmellian with Arbin and Francin, prince bailliff of the Duchy of Aosta, Prince of Chieri, Dronero, Crescentino, Riva di Chieri e Banna, Busca, Bene, Brà, Duke of Genoa, Monferrat, Aosta, Duke of Chablais, Genevois, Duke of Piacenza, Marquis of Saluzzo (Saluces), Ivrea, Susa, del Maro, Oristano, Cesana, Savona, Tarantasia, Borgomanero e Cureggio, Caselle, Rivoli, Pianezza, Govone, Salussola, Racconigi con Tegerone, Migliabruna e Motturone, Cavallermaggiore, Marene, Modane e Lanslebourg, Livorno Ferraris, Santhià Agliè, Centallo e Demonte, Desana, Ghemme, Vigone, Count of Barge, Villafranca, Ginevra, Nizza, Tenda, Romont, Asti, Alessandria, del Goceano, Novara, Tortona, Bobbio, Soissons, Sant'Antioco, Pollenzo, Roccabruna, Tricerro, Bairo, Ozegna, delle Apertole, Baron of Vaud e del Faucigni, Lord of Vercelli, Pinerolo, della Lomellina, della Valle Sesia, del marchesato di Ceva, Overlord of Monaco, Roccabruna and 11/12th of Menton, Noble patrician of Venice, patrician of Ferrara.''