Tiny Wiki : Fast loading, text only version of Wikipedia.

Lisbon Strategy

The Lisbon Strategy, also known as the Lisbon Agenda or Lisbon Process, was an action and development plan for the European Union between 2000 and 2010.

Its aim was to make the EU "the most dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion, and respect for the environment by 2010". It was set out by the European Council in Lisbon in March 2000 and by 2010 most of its goals were not achieved.

Background and objectives

The Lisbon Strategy intended to deal with the low productivity and stagnation of economic growth in the EU, through the formulation of various policy initiatives to be taken by all EU member states. The broader objectives set out by the Lisbon strategy are to be attained by 2010.

It was adopted for a ten-year period in 2000 in Lisbon, Portugal by the European Council. It broadly aimed to "make Europe, by 2010, the most competitive and the most dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world".

The Strategy

The main fields are economic, social, and environmental renewal and sustainability. The Lisbon Strategy is heavily based on the economic concepts of:

* Innovation as the motor for economic change (based on the writings of Joseph Schumpeter)
* The "learning economy"
* Social and environmental renewal

Under the strategy, a stronger economy will create employment in the EU, alongside inclusive social and environmental policies, which will themselves drive economic growth even further.

An EU research group found in 2005 that current progress had been judged "unconvincing", so a reform process was introduced wherein all goals would be reviewed every three years, with assistance provided on failing items.

Translation of the Lisbon Strategy goals into concrete measures led to the extension of the Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development (FPs) into FP7 and the Joint Technology Initiatives(JTI).

Key thinkers and concepts

Contemporary key thinkers on whose works the Lisbon Strategy is based and/or who were involved in its creation include [http://www.mariajoaorodrigues.eu/ Maria João Rodrigues], Christopher Freeman, Bengt-Åke Lundvall, Luc Soete, Carlota Perez, Manuel Castells, Giovanni Dosi, and Richard Nelson.

Key concepts of the Lisbon Strategy include those of the knowledge economy, innovation, techno-economic paradigms, technology governance, and the "open method of coordination" (OMC).

Mid-term review

Between April and November 2004, Wim Kok headed up a review of the program and presented a report on the Lisbon strategy concluding that even if some progress was made, most of the goals were not achieved:

The European Commission used this report as a basis for its proposal in February 2005 to refocus the Lisbon Agenda on actions that promote growth and jobs in a manner that is fully consistent with the objective of sustainable development. The Commission's communication stated that "making growth and jobs the immediate target goes hand in hand with promoting social or environmental objectives."

In its resolution on the mid-term review of the Lisbon strategy in March 2005, the European Parliament expressed its belief that "sustainable growth and employment are Europe's most pressing goals and underpin social and environmental progress" and "that well-designed social and environmental policies are themselves key elements in strengthening Europe's economic performance".

These declarations were commented as unrealistic and failure of "relaunch" initiative was predicted if current approach is not changed[http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/4478 Charles Wyplosz, "The failure of the Lisbon strategy", 2010, VoxEU].

Closing review

In 2009 Swedish prime minister Fredrik Reinfeldt admitted:

Failure of Lisbon Strategy was widely commented in the news and by member states leaders.

Spain prime minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero pointed out that non-binding character of Lisbon Strategy submitted to the failure, and this lesson needs to be taken into account by new EU 2020 strategy.

Official appraisal of Lisbon Strategy is due in March 2010 on European Summit.

Further reading

*Maria João Rodrigues (2003), ''European Policies for a Knowledge Economy'', Edward Elgar.
*Maria João Rodrigues (2009), ''Europe, Globalization and the Lisbon Agenda'' in collaboration with I. Begg, J. Berghman, R. Boyer, B. Coriat, W. Drechsler, J. Goetschy, B.Å. Lundvall, P.C. Padoan, L. Soete, M. Telò and A. Török, Edward Elgar.

Source: Wikipedia