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The Palazzo Vecchio (IPA pronunciation: [palatzo vɛkio]); Italian for "Old Palace") is the town hall of Florence, central Italy. This massive, Romanesque, crenellated fortress-palace is among the most impressive town halls of Tuscany. Overlooking the Piazza della Signoria with its copy of Michelangelo's David statue as well the gallery of statues in the adjacent Loggia dei Lanzi, it is one of the most significant public places in Italy.
Originally called the ''Palazzo della Signoria'', after the Signoria of Florence, the ruling body of the Republic of Florence, it was also given several other names: ''Palazzo del Popolo'', ''Palazzo dei Priori'', and ''Palazzo Ducale'', in accordance with the varying use of the palace during its long history. The building acquired its current name when the Medici duke's residence was moved across the Arno to the Palazzo Pitti.
Palazzo Vecchio overlooks piazza della Signoria
[Bartlett, 37.] the commune and people of Florence decided to build a palace, worthy of the city's importance and giving greater security, in times of turbulence, to the magistrates. Arnolfo di Cambio, the architect of the Duomo and the Santa Croce church, began constructing it upon the ruins of ''Palazzo dei Fanti'' and ''Palazzo dell'Esecutore di Giustizia'', once owned by the Uberti family. Giovanni Villani (1276–1348) wrote in his ''Nuova Cronica'' that the Uberti were "rebels of Florence and Ghibellines", stating that the plaza was built so that the Uberti family homes would never be rebuilt on the same location. Giovanni Villani wrote that Arnolfo di Cambio incorporated the ancient tower of the Foraboschi family (the tower then known as "La Vacca" or "The Cow") as the substructure of the tower into its facade; this is why the rectangular tower (height 94 m) is not directly centered in the building. This tower contains two small cells, that, at different times, imprisoned Cosimo de' Medici (the Elder) (1435) and Girolamo Savonarola (1498). The tower is named after its designer ''Torre d'Arnolfo''. The solid cubicle shaped building is enhanced by the simple tower with its Lederle clock.
The large, one-handed clock was originally constructed by the Florentine Nicolò Bernardo, but was replaced in 1667 by a clock made by Vincenzo Viviani.
The cubical building is built in solid rustic stonework, with two rows of two-lighted Gothic windows, each with a trefoil arch. Michelozzo Michelozzi added decorative bas-reliefs of the cross and the lily in the spandrels between the trefoils. The building is crowned with projecting crenellated battlement, supported by small arches and corbels. Under the arches are a repeated series of nine painted coats of arms of the Florentine republic. Some of these arches can be used as embrasures (''spiombati'') for dropping heated liquids or rocks on invaders.
The name was officially changed after Cosimo moved to the Palazzo Pitti, renaming his former palace the ''Palazzo Vecchio'', the "Old Palace", although the adjacent town square, the ''Piazza della Signoria'', still bears the old name. Cosimo commissioned Giorgio Vasari to build an above-ground walkway, the Vasari corridor, from the palace, through the Uffizi, over the Ponte Vecchio to the Palazzo Pitti.
Cosimo I also moved the seat of government to the Uffizi. The palace gained new importance as the seat of United Italy's provisional government from 1865-71, at a moment when Florence had become the capital of the kingdom of Italy.
Although most of the Palazzo Vecchio is now a museum, it remains the symbol of local government: since 1872 it has housed the office of the mayor of Florence, and it is the seat of the City Council.
Entrance with frontispiece.
Above the front entrance door, there is a notable ornamental marble frontispiece, dating from 1528. In the middle, flanked by two gilded lions, is the Monogram of Christ, surrounded by a glory, above the text (''in Latin''): "Rex Regum et Dominus Dominantium" (translation: "Jesus Christ, King of Kings and Lord of Lords". This text dates from 1851 and does not replace an earlier text by Savonarola as mentioned in guidebooks. Between 1529 and 1851 they were concealed behind a large shield with the grand-ducal coat of arms.
Michelangelo's David also stood at the entrance from its completion in 1504 to 1873, when it was moved to the Accademia Gallery. A replica erected in 1910 now stands in its place, flanked by Baccio Bandinelli's Hercules and Cacus.
The first courtyard was designed in 1453 by Michelozzo. In the lunettes, high around the courtyard, are crests of the Church and City Guilds. In the center, the porphyry fountain is by Battista del Tadda. The ''Putto with Dolphin'' on top of the basin is a copy of the original by Andrea del Verrocchio (1476), now on display on the second floor of the palace. This small statue was originally placed in the garden of the villa of the Medici in Careggi. The water, flowing through the nose of the dolphin, is brought here by pipes from the Boboli Gardens.
In the niche, in front of the fountain, stands ''Samson and Philistine'' by Pierino da Vinci.
The frescoes on the walls, representing scenes of the Austrian Habsburg estates, were painted in 1565 by Giorgio Vasari for the wedding celebration of Francesco I de' Medici, the eldest son of Cosimo I de' Medici, and Johanna of Austria, sister of the Emperor Maximilian. The harmoniously proportioned columns, at one time smooth, and untouched, were at the same time richly decorated with gilt stuccoes.
The barrel vaults are furnished with grotesque decorations.
The second courtyard, also called "The Customs", contains the massive pillars built in 1494 by Cronaca to sustain the great
''"Salone dei Cinquecento"'' on the second floor.
The third courtyard was used mainly for offices of the city. Between the first and second
courtyard the massive and monumental stairs by Vasari lead up to the
''"Salone dei Cinquecento"''.
Salone dei Cinquecento
Salone dei Cinquecento.
The cartoon of the ''Battle of Cascina'' by Michelangelo.
This most imposing chamber has a length of 52 m (170 ft) and is 23 m (75 ft) broad. It was built in 1494 by Simone del Pollaiolo, on commission of Savonarola who, replacing the Medici after their exile as the spiritual leader of the Republic, wanted it as a seat of the Grand Council (''Consiglio Maggiore'') consisting of 500 members.
Later the hall was enlarged by Giorgio Vasari so that Grand Duke Cosimo I could hold his court in this chamber. During this transformation famous (but unfinished) works were lost, including the ''Battle of Cascina'' by Michelangelo, and the ''Battle of Anghiari'' by Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo was commissioned in 1503 to paint one long wall with a battle scene celebrating a famous Florentine victory. He was always trying new methods and materials and decided to mix wax into his pigments. Leonardo had finished painting part of the wall, but it wasn't drying fast enough, so he brought in braziers stoked with hot coals to try to hurry the process. As others watched in horror, the wax in the fresco melted under the intense heat and the colors ran down the walls to puddle on the floor. Michelangelo never even got past making the preparatory drawings for the fresco he was supposed to paint on the opposite wall—Pope Julius II called him to Rome to paint the Sistine Chapel, and the master's sketches were destroyed by eager young artists who came to study them and took away scraps. The surviving decorations in this hall were made between 1555 and 1572 by Giorgio Vasari and his helpers, among them Livio Agresti from Forlì. They mark the culmination of mannerism and make this hall the showpiece of the palace.
On the walls are large and expansive frescoes that depict battles and military victories by Florence over Pisa and Siena :
*''The Taking of Siena''
*''The Conquest of Porto Ercole''
*''The Victory of Cosimo I at Marciano in Val di Chiana''
*''Defeat of the Pisans at the Tower of San Vincenzo''
*''Maximillian of Austria Attempts the Conquest of Leghorn''
*''Pisa Attacked by the Florentine Troops''
The ceiling consists of 39 panels also constructed and painted by Vasari and his assistants,
representing ''Great Episodes from the life of Cosimo I'', the quarters of the city and the city itself and towards the center is the apotheosis : ''Scene of His Glorification as Grand Duke of Florence and Tuscany''
''Genio della Vittoria ''by Michelangelo.
On the north side of the hall, illuminated by enormous windows, is the raised stage called
the ''Udienza'', built by Bartolommeo Bandinelli for Cosimo I to receive citizens and ambassadors. Above are frescoes of historical events; among these, that of Boniface VIII receiving the ambassadors of foreign States and, seeing that were all Florentines, saying: "You Florentines are the quintessence".
In the niches are sculptures by Bandinelli: in the center the statue of the seated "Leo X" (sculpted assisted by his scholar Vincenzo de'Rossi), and on the right a statue of "Charles V crowned by Clement VII".
There are also numerous bombastic Medicean tapestries on the walls, including ''Stories of the Life of St. John the Baptist'', taken from the frescoes of Andrea del Sarto.
The six statues along the walls that represent the "Labors of Hercules" are by Vincenzo de'Rossi.
In the central niche at the south of the Hall is Michelangelo's famous marble group "The Genius of Victory" (1533-1534), originally intended for the tomb of Julius II. The statue was taken from the Bargello Museum.
At the end of the hall is situated a small sideroom without windows. This masterpiece, the Studiolo of Francesco I (a studiolo is a small study) was also designed by Vasari in a manneristic style (1570-1575). The walls and the barrel vault are filled with paintings, stucco and sculptures. (Baroque paintings hide secret cupboards.) Most paintings are by the School of Vasari and represent the four elements : water, fire, earth and air. The portrait of Cosimo I and his wife Eleonora of Toledo was made by Bronzino. The delicate bronze sculptures were made by Giambologna and Bartolomeo Ammanati. Dismantled within decades of its construction, it was re-assembled in the twentieth century.
The other rooms on the first floor are the ''Quartieri monumentali''. These rooms, the Residence of the Priors and the Quarters of Leo X, are used by the mayor as offices and reception rooms. They are not accessible to the public.
Palazzo Vecchio from Uffizi Gallery
A staircase, designed by Vasari leads to the second floor. This floor contains the Chapel of Signoria, the Hall of Justice (''"Sala delle Udienze"''), the Room of the Lilies (Sala dei Gigli), the Study Room and the Apartments of the
The Apartments of the Elements
These apartments (''Sala degli Elementi'') consist of five rooms (such as the Room of Ceres) and two loggias. The commission for these rooms was originally given by Cosimo I to Battista del Tasso. But on his death, the decorations were continued by Vasari and his helpers, working for the first time for the Medicis. These rooms were the private quarters of Cosimo I.
The walls in the Room of the Elements are filled with allegorical frescoes ''Allegories of Water, Fire and Earth'' and, on the ceiling, represents ''Saturn''.
The original statue ''Boy with a Fish' by Verrocchio is on exhibit in one of the smaller rooms (the copy stands on the fountain in the first courtyard).
Terrace of Saturn
Named for the fresco on the ceiling. Has a fabulous view of Florence. There is a southeastern view to Piazzale Michelangelo and the Fortress Belvedere. Also visible are the remains of the Church of San Piero Scheraggio.
The Hercules Room
Polychrome "Madonna and Child".
Stipo, an ebony cabinet.
This room (the Sala di Ercole) gets its name from the subject of the paintings on the ceiling. Also the tapestries show stories of Hercules. The room contains a ''Madonna and Child'' and an ebony cabinet called a ''stipo'' inlaid with semi-precious stones.
The Lion House
Cosimo the Elder kept a menagerie of lions in a dedicated lion house in the palazzo. He often fought them or baited them against other animals in large festivals for visiting Popes or dignitaries.
The Room of Jupiter
The room is named for the fresco on the ceiling. On the walls are Florentine tapestries made
from cartoons by Stradano (16th century).
The Room of Cybele
On the ceiling, the ''Triumph of Cybele'' and the ''Four Seasons''. Against the walls are
cabinets in tortoise shell and bronze. The floor was made in 1556. From the window one can
see the third courtyard.
The Ceres Room
The room gets its name from the motif on the ceiling, by Doceno, a pupil of Vasari. On the
walls are Florentine tapestries with hunting scenes, from cartoons by Stradano.
Called the Green Room because of the color of the walls. With decorations on the ceiling by
Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio. On the right is the Chapel frescoed by Bronzino (1564) with
the ''Stories of Moses''. Also by Bronzino is the large ''Pietà'' on the altar. The small
door in the room indicates the beginning of the Vasari corridor, a passageway to the Palazzo Pitti built by Vasari for Cosimo I.
The Room of the Sabines
It was named because of the ceiling decoration. At one time it was used for the Ladies-in-
waiting at the court of Eleonora di Toledo. It contains ''Portraits of Medici Princes'' by
Sustermans, statues by a Florentine art school and a tapestry by Fevère.
On the ceiling is the ''Coronation of Esther'' decorated by Stradano, with an inscription
in honor of Eleonora di Toledo. The room contains a lavabo and two tapestries by
Van Assel representing ''Spring and Autumn''.
The Room of Penelope
On the ceiling ''Penelope at the loom'', in the frieze, ''episodes from the Odyssey''. On the
walls: ''Madonna and Child'' and a ''Madonna and Child with St. John'' by Botticelli.
Private Chamber of Eleanor
Originally called the '"Room of Gualdrada"' from the subject of the ceiling painting, this room was one of the private rooms of Eleonora of Toledo, wife of Cosimo I de' Medici. The paintings are by the Flemish painter Jan Stradan, better known under his Italian name Stradone. Against the wall is a cabinet with Florentine mosaic designs.
The adjoining, richly decorated chapel is painted in fresco by the mannerist Angelo Bronzino. It includes some of his masterpieces including Crossing the Red Sea.
''Life of Furius Camillus'' in the Sala dell'Udienza.
The Audience Chamber or Hall of Justice used to house the meetings of the six ''priori'' (guild masters of the arts). It contains the oldest decorations in the palace.
The carved coffer ceiling, laminated with pure gold, is by Giuliano da Maiano (1470-1476).
On the portal of the Chapel is an inscription in honor of Christ (1529). The door, communicating with the Hall of Lilies, is a marvel. The marble mouldings of this portal were sculpted by the brothers Giuliano and Benedetto da Maiano. Its inlaid woodwork (intarsia) was carved by Del Francione. They give us portraits of Dante and Petrarch
The large frescoes on the walls, of a decorative value representing ''Stories of Furius Camillus'', by Francesco Salviati, were made in the middle of the 16th century. Since Salviati had his schooling in the circle around Raphael in Rome, these frescoes are mirrored on Roman models and therefore not typical of Florentine art. Furius Camillus was a Roman general, mentioned in the writings of Plutarchus.
Chapel of the Signoria
A small doorway leads into the adjoining small chapel dedicated to St. Bernard, containing a reliquary of the Saint. Here the priors used to supply divine aid in the execution of their duties. In this chapel, Girolamo Savonarola said his last prayers before he was burned to death on the Piazza della Signoria.
The marvellous frescoes on the walls and ceiling, on a background imitating gold mosaic, are by Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. Of particular interest are ''The Holy Trinity'' on the ceiling and ''The Annunciation'' on the wall facing the altar. On the altar was a painting representing the ''Holy Family'' by Mariano Graziadei da Pescia, a pupil of Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. It is now on exhibition in the corridor of the Uffizi Gallery. Instead, there is a good painting of St. Bernard by an unknown artist.
Frescoes in the Hall of Lilies.
The carved ceiling of the Hall of the Lilies, as this room is usually called, decorated with ''fleur-de-lys'', and the ''Statue of St. John the Baptist and Putti'' are all by Benedetto da Maiano and his brother Giuliano. The goldenfleur-de-lys decorations on blue background on the ceiling and three walls refer to the (short-lived) good relations between Florence and the French Crown.
Ceiling with fleur-de-lys.
On the wall are frescoes by Domenico Ghirlandaio, painted in 1482. The apotheosis of St. Zenobius, first patron saint of Florence, was painted with a perspectival illusion of the background. In this background one can see the Cathedral, with Giotto's original facade and bell tower. In the lunette above is a bas-relief of the Madonna and Child. This fresco is flanked on both sides by frescoes of famed Romans: on the left ''Brutus, Gaius Mucius Scaevola and Camillus'', and on the right ''Decius, Scipio and Cicero''. Medaillons of Roman emperors fill the spandrils between the sections.
The door in this wall leads to the ''Stanza della Guardaroba'' (Hall of Geographical Maps). This door is flanked by two dark marble pillars, originally from a Roman temple.
After its lengthy restoration, the (original) statue "Judith and Holofernes" by Donatello was given a prominent place in this room in 1988.
Map of the British Isles by Ignazio Danti.
The ''"mappa mundi"''.
Bust of Niccolò Machiavelli.
Stanza del Guardaroba
The Hall of Geographical Maps or Wardrobe is where the Medici Grand Dukes kept their precious belongings. The cabinets and carved ceiling are by Dionigi Nigetti.
The doors of the cabinets were decorated with 53 remarkable '' maps of scientific interest'', oil paintings by the Dominican monk Fra Ignazio Danti (1563-1575), brother of the sculptor Vincenzo Danti, and Stefano Buonsignori (1575-1584). They are of great historical interest and give a good idea of the geographical knowledge in the 16th century. Danti followed the Ptolemaic system, while already using the new cartographical system of Gerardus Mercator.
In the center of the room is the large globe ''"mappa mundi"'' ruined by excessive restorations.
This was Machiavelli's office when he was Secretary of the Republic. His polychrome bust in terracotta and his portrait are by Santi di Tito. They are probably modelled on his death mask.
In the center of the room, on the pedestal is the famous ''Winged Boy with a Dolphin'' by Verrocchio, brought to this room from the First Courtyard.
The Study (''Studiolo'')
The reassembled room was used by Cellini to restore the treasures of the Medici princes. From the little window in the wall, Cosimo I spied on his ministers and officers, during meetings in the Salone dei Cinquecento. It became a museum of mannerist paintings.