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Pier Paolo Pasolini






Pier Paolo Pasolini (March 5, 1922 – November 2, 1975) was an Italian poet, intellectual, film director, and writer. Pasolini distinguished himself as a journalist, philosopher, linguist, novelist, playwright, filmmaker, newspaper and magazine columnist, actor, painter and political figure. He demonstrated a unique and extraordinary cultural versatility, in the process becoming a highly controversial figure.

Life



Pasolini was born in Bologna, traditionally one of the most leftist of Italian cities. He was the son of a lieutenant of the Italian Army, Carlo Alberto, who had become famous for saving Benito Mussolini's life, and who married an elementary school teacher, Susanna Colussi, in 1921. Pasolini was born in 1922 and was named after his paternal uncle. His family moved to Conegliano in 1923 and, two years later, to Belluno, where another son, Guidalberto, was born. In 1926, however, Pasolini's father was arrested for gambling debts, and his mother moved to her family's house in Casarsa della Delizia, in the Friuli region.

Pasolini began writing poems at the age of seven, inspired by the natural beauty of Casarsa. One of his early influences was the work of Arthur Rimbaud. In 1933 his father was transferred to Cremona, and later to Scandiano and Reggio Emilia. Pasolini found it difficult to adapt to all these moves, though in the meantime he enlarged his poetry and literature readings (Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Shakespeare, Coleridge, Novalis) and left behind the religious fervour of his early years. In the Reggio Emilia high school he met his first true friend, Luciano Serra. The two met again in Bologna, where Pasolini spent seven years while completing high school: here he cultivated new passions, including football. With other friends, including Ermes Parini, Franco Farolfi, Elio Meli, he formed a group dedicated to literary discussions.

In 1939 he graduated and entered the Literature College of the University of Bologna, discovering new themes like philology and aesthetics of figurative arts. He also frequented the local cinema club. Pasolini always showed his friends a virile and strong exterior, totally hiding his interior travail. He took part in the Fascist government's culture and sports competitions. In 1941, together with Francesco Leonetti, Roberto Roversi and others, he attempted to publish a poetry magazine, but the attempt failed due to paper shortages. In his poems of this period, Pasolini started to include fragments in Friulian, which he had learned from his mother.

First poetical works


After the summer in Casarsa, in 1941 Pasolini published at his own expense a collection of poems in Friulian, ''Versi a Casarsa''. The work was noted and appreciated by intellectuals and critics like Gianfranco Contini, Alfonso Gatto and Antonio Russi. His pictures had also been well received. Pasolini was chief editor of the ''Il Setaccio'' ("The Sieve") magazine, but was fired after conflicts with the director, who was aligned with the Fascist regime. A trip to Germany helped him also to discover the "provincial" status of Italian culture in that era. These experiences led Pasolini to rethink his opinion about the cultural politics of Fascism and to switch gradually to a Communist position.

In 1942, the family took shelter in Casarsa, considered a more tranquil place to wait for the conclusion of the war, a decision common among Italian military families. Here, for the first time, Pasolini had to face the erotic disquiet he had suppressed during his adolescent years. He wrote: "A continuous perturbation without images or words beats at my temples and obscures me".

In the weeks before the 8 September armistice, Pasolini was drafted. He was captured and imprisoned by the Germans. He managed to escape disguised as a peasant, and found his way to Casarsa. Here he joined a group of other young fans of the Friulian language who wanted to give Casarsa Friulian a status equal to that of Udine, the official regional dialect. From May 1944 they issued a magazine entitled ''Stroligùt di cà da l'aga''. In the meantime, Casarsa suffered Allied bombardments and forced enrollments by the Italian Social Republic, as well as partisan activity.

Pasolini tried to remain apart from these events. He and his mother taught students unable to reach the schools in Pordenone or Udine. He experienced his first homosexual love for one of his students. At the same time, a Slovenian schoolgirl, Pina Kalč, was falling in love with Pasolini. On 12 February 1945 his brother Guido was killed in an ambush. Six days later Pasolini and others founded the Friulian Language Academy (''Academiuta di lenga furlana''). In the same year Pasolini joined the Association for the Autonomy of Friuli. He graduated after completing a final thesis about Giovanni Pascoli's works.

In 1946 Pasolini published a small poetry collection, ''I Diarii'' ("The Diaries"), with the Academiuta. In October he travelled to Rome. The following May he began the so-called ''Quaderni Rossi'', handwritten in old school exercise books with red covers. He completed a drama in Italian, ''Il Cappellano''. His poetry collection, ''I Pianti'' ("The cries"), was also published by the Academiuta.

Adherence to the Italian Communist Party


On 26 January 1947 Pasolini wrote a controversial declaration for the front page of the newspaper ''Libertà'': "In our opinion, we think that currently only Communism is able to provide a new culture." The controversy was partly due to the fact he was still not a member of the Italian Communist Party (PCI).

He was also planning to extend the work of the Academiuta to other Romance language literatures and knew the exiled Catalan poet, Carles Cardó. After his adherence to the PCI, he took part in several demonstrations and, in May 1949, attended the Peace Congress in Paris. Observing the struggles of workers and peasants, and watching the clashes of protesters with Italian police, he began to create his first novel.

However, in October of the same year, Pasolini was charged with the corruption of minors and obscene acts in public places. As a result, he was expelled by the Udine section of the Communist Party and lost the teaching job he had obtained the previous year in Valvasone. Living a difficult situation, in January 1950 Pasolini moved to Rome with his mother.

He later described this period of his life as very difficult. "I came to Rome from the Friulian countryside. Unemployed for many years; ignored by everybody; riven by the fear to be not as life needed to be". Instead of asking for help from other writers, Pasolini preferred to go his own way. He found a job as a worker in the Cinecittà studios and sold his books in the 'bancarelle' ("sidewalk shops") of Rome. Finally, through the help of the Abruzzese-language poet Vittorio Clemente, he found a job as a teacher in Ciampino, a suburb of the capital.

In these years Pasolini transferred his Friulian countryside inspiration to Rome's suburbs, the infamous ''borgate'' where poor proletarian immigrants lived in often horrendous sanitary and social conditions.

Success and charges


In 1954, Pasolini, who now worked for the literary section of Italian state radio, left his teaching job and moved to the Monteverde quarter, publishing ''La meglio gioventù'', his first important collection of dialect poems. His first novel, ''Ragazzi di vita'' (English: ''Boys of Life''), was published in 1955. The work had great success but was poorly received by the PCI establishment and, most importantly, by the Italian government, which even initiated a lawsuit against Pasolini and his editor, Garzanti.

Though totally exonerated of any charge, Pasolini became a favourite victim of insinuations, especially by the tabloid press.

In 1957, together with Sergio Citti, Pasolini collaborated on Federico Fellini's film ''Le notti di Cabiria'', writing dialogue for the Roman dialect parts. In 1960 he made his debut as an actor in ''Il gobbo'', and co-wrote ''Long Night in 1943''.

His first film as director and screenwriter is ''Accattone'' of 1961, again set in Rome's marginal quarters. The movie again aroused controversy and scandal. In 1963, the episode "La ricotta", included in the collective movie ''RoGoPaG'', was censored and Pasolini was tried for offence to the Italian state.

During this period Pasolini was frequently abroad: in 1961, with Elsa Morante and Alberto Moravia in India (where he went again seven years later); in 1962 in Sudan and Kenya; in 1963, in Ghana, Nigeria, Guinea, Jordan, and Israel (where he shot the documentary, ''Sopralluoghi in Palestina''). In 1970 he travelled again to Africa to shoot the documentary, ''Appunti per un'Orestiade africana''.

The late 1960s and early 1970s were the era of the so-called "student movement". Pasolini, though acknowledging the students' ideological motivations, thought them "anthropologically middle-class" and therefore destined to fail in their attempts at revolutionary change. He went so far as to state, regarding the Battle of Valle Giulia, which took place in Rome in March 1968, that he sympathized with the police, as they were "children of the poor", while the young militants were exponents of what he called "left-wing fascism". His film of that year, ''Teorema'', was shown at the annual Venice Film Festival in a hot political climate, as Pasolini had proclaimed that the Festival would be managed by the directors themselves (see also Works section).

In 1970 Pasolini bought an old castle near Viterbo, several miles north of Rome, where he began to write his last novel, ''Petrolio'', which was never finished. In 1972 he started to collaborate with the extreme-left association Lotta Continua, producing a documentary, ''12 dicembre'', concerning the Piazza Fontana bombing. The following year he began a collaboration for Italy's most renowned newspaper, ''Il Corriere della Sera''.

At the beginning of 1975 Garzanti published a collection of critical essays, ''Scritti corsari'' ("Corsair Writings").

Death


Pasolini was brutally murdered by being run over several times with his own car, dying on 2 November 1975 on the beach at Ostia, near Rome. Pasolini was buried in Casarsa, in his beloved Friuli. He was buried wearing the jersey of the Italian Showmen national team, a charity soccer team he founded.

Giuseppe Pelosi, a seventeen-year-old hustler, was arrested and confessed to murdering Pasolini. Thirty years later, on 7 May 2005, he retracted his confession, which he said was made under the threat of violence to his family. He claimed that three people "with a southern accent" had committed the murder, insulting Pasolini as a "dirty communist".

Following Pelosi's retraction, the investigation into Pasolini's death was reopened. The murder is still not completely explained. Contradictions in Pelosi's statements, a strange intervention by Italian secret services during the investigations, and some lack of coherence in related documents during different parts of the judicial procedures brought some of Pasolini's friends to suspect that it had been a contract killing. His friend Oriana Fallaci exposed inefficiency in the investigations, writing in ''Europeo'' magazine. Many clues suggest that it was unlikely that Pelosi killed Pasolini alone.

Other evidence uncovered in 2005 pointed to Pasolini having been murdered by an extortionist. Testimony by Pasolini's friend Sergio Citti indicated that some of the rolls of film from ''Salò'' had been stolen, and that Pasolini had been going to meet with the thieves after a visit to Stockholm, November 2, 1975.

Others theorize that Pasolini may have wanted to be killed and staged his death. Proponents of this theory include Pasolini's lifelong friend, painter and writer, Giuseppe Zigaina. Zigaina claims that "Pasolini himself was the 'organizer' of his own death, which, conceived as a form of expression, was intended to give meaning to his entire oeuvre." Zigaina argued that Pasolini had been planning his death for many years and planted codes in his works that revealed when and how it would happen. Alberto Moravia also found striking similarities between Pasolini's death and his work. In 1977 Moravia wrote a book about the murder. He said he recognized the Ostia murder scene from Pasolini's descriptions of similar landscapes in his two novels ''Ragazzi di vita (The Ragazzi)'' and ''Una vita violenta (A Violent Life)'', and in an image from his first film ''Accattone''. Pasolini shot footage of the site a year earlier, for use in his film ''Il fiore delle mille e una notte (A Thousand and One Nights)''. Unlike Zigaina, however, Moravia considered those similarities as no more than poetic irony.

Despite the Roman police's reopening of the murder case following Pelosi's statement of May 2005, the judges charged with investigating it determined the new elements insufficient for them to continue the inquiry.

On the 30th anniversary of his death in 2005, Mario Verger released an animated biographical cartoon, entitled ''Pasolini requiem'', with passages drawn from ''Mamma Roma'', ''Uccellacci e uccellini'', and ''La Terra vista dalla Luna''. It ends with a description of the Ostia murder.

Works



Pasolini's first novel ''Ragazzi di vita'' (1955) dealt with the Roman lumpen proletariat. The resulting obscenity charges against him were the first of many instances where his art provoked legal problems. ''Accattone'' (1961), also about the Roman underworld, also provoked controversy with conservatives, who demanded stricter censorship.

He then directed the black-and-white ''The Gospel According to St. Matthew'' (1964). This film is widely hailed as the best cinematic adaptation of the life of Jesus (Enrique Irazoqui). Whilst filming it, Pasolini vowed to direct it from the "believer's point of view", but later, upon viewing the completed work, saw he had instead expressed his own beliefs.

In his 1966 film, ''Uccellacci e uccellini'' (literally ''Bad Birds and Little Birds'' but translated in English as ''The Hawks and the Sparrows''), a picaresque - and at the same time mystic - fable, he hired the great Italian comedian Totò to work with one of his preferred "naif" actors, Ninetto Davoli. It was a unique opportunity for Totò to demonstrate that he was a great dramatic actor as well.

In ''Teorema'' (''Theorem'', 1968), starring Terence Stamp as a mysterious stranger, he depicted the sexual coming-apart of a bourgeois family (later repeated by François Ozon in ''Sitcom'').

Later movies centered on sex-laden folklore, such as Boccaccio's ''Decameron'' (1971) and Chaucer's ''Canterbury Tales'' (1972), and ''Il fiore delle mille e una notte'' (literally ''The Flower of 1001 Nights'', released in English as ''Arabian Nights'', 1974). These films are usually grouped as the ''Trilogy of Life''.

His final work, ''Salò'' (''Salò, or the 120 Days of Sodom'', 1975), exceeded what most viewers could then stomach in its explicit scenes of intensely sadistic violence. Based on the novel ''120 Days of Sodom'' by the Marquis de Sade, it is considered his most controversial film. In May 2006, ''Time Out'''s Film Guide named it the Most Controversial Film of all time.

Significance



As a director, Pasolini created a picaresque neorealism, showing a sad reality. Many people did not want to see such portrayals in artistic work for public distribution. ''Mamma Roma'' (1962), featuring Anna Magnani and telling the story of a prostitute and her son, was an affront to the morality of those times. His works, with their unequaled poetry applied to cruel realities, showing that such realities are less distant from us than we imagine, made a major contribution to change in the Italian psyche.

The director also promoted in his works the concept of "natural sacredness," the idea that the world is holy in and of itself. He suggested there was no need for spiritual essence or supernatural blessing to attain this state. Pasolini was an avowed atheist.

General disapproval of Pasolini's work was perhaps caused primarily by his frequent focus on sexual mores, and the contrast between what he presented and publicly sanctioned behavior. While Pasolini's poetry often dealt with his same-sex love interests, this was not the only, or even main, theme. Much of the poetry was about his highly revered mother. As a sensitive and intelligent man, he depicted certain corners of the contemporary reality as few other poets could do. His poetry was not as well-known as his films outside Italy.

Legacy and honors



His films won awards at the Berlin Film Festival, Cannes Film Festival, Venice Film Festival, Italian National Syndicate for Film Journalists, Jussi Awards, Kinema Junpo Awards, International Catholic Film Office and New York Film Critics Circle.

Political views



Pasolini generated heated public discussion with controversial analyses of public affairs. For instance, during the disorders of 1969, when the autonomist university students were carrying on a guerrilla-like uprising against the police in the streets of Rome and all the leftist forces declared their complete support for the students, describing the disorders as a civil fight of proletariat against the System, Pasolini, alone among the communists, declared that he was with the police; or, more precisely, with the policemen. He considered them true proletariat, sent to fight for a poor salary and for reasons which they could not understand, against pampered boys of their same age, because they had not had the fortune of being able to study, referring to ''poliziotti figli di proletari meridionali picchiati da figli di papà in vena di bravate'' (lit. ''policemen, sons of proletarian southerners, beaten up by arrogant daddys' boys ''). This ironic statement, however, did not stop him from contributing to the autonomist ''Lotta continua'' movement.

Pasolini was also an ardent critic of ''consumismo'', i.e. consumerism, which he felt had rapidly destroyed Italian society in the late 1960s/early 1970s. He was particularly concerned about the class of the subproletariat, which he portrayed in ''Accattone'', and to which he felt both sexually and artistically drawn. Pasolini observed that the kind of purity which he perceived in the pre-industrial popular culture was rapidly vanishing, a process that he named ''la scomparsa delle lucciole'' (lit. "''the disappearance of glow-worms''"). The ''joie de vivre'' of the boys was being rapidly replaced with more bourgeois ambitions such as a house and a family. He described the coprophagia scenes in ''Salò'' as a comment on the processed food industry.

He was angered by economic globalization and the cultural domination of the North of Italy (around Milan) over other regions, especially the South. He felt this was accomplished through the power of TV. He opposed the gradual disappearance of Italian dialects by writing some of his poetry in Friulian, the regional language of his childhood. Despite his left-wing views, Pasolini opposed the liberalization of abortion laws.

Sexuality



The ''LGBT'' encyclopedia states the following regarding Pasolini's homosexuality:

While openly gay from the very start of his career (thanks to a gay sex scandal that sent him packing from his provincial hometown to live and work in Rome), Pasolini rarely dealt with homosexuality in his movies.
The subject is featured prominently in ''Teorema'' (1968), where Terence Stamp's mysterious God-like visitor seduces the son of an upper-middle-class family; passingly in ''Arabian Nights'' (1974), in an idyll between a king and a commoner that ends in death; and, most darkly of all, in ''Salò'' (1975), his infamous rendition of the Marquis de Sade's compendium of sexual horrors, ''The 120 Days of Sodom''.


Quotes




* If you know that I am an unbeliever, then you know me better than I do myself. I may be an unbeliever, but I am an unbeliever who has a nostalgia for a belief. (1966)

* The mark which has dominated all my work is this longing for life, this sense of exclusion, which doesn't lessen but augments this love of life. (Interview in documentary, late 1960s)

*One should never hope for anything. Hope is a thing invented by politicians to keep the electorate happy.

New York Times interview, 1968



* I suffer from the nostalgia of a peasant-type religion, and that is why I am on the side of the servant. But I do not believe in a metaphysical god. I am religious because I have a natural identification between reality and God. Reality is divine. That is why my films are never naturalistic. The motivation that unites all of my films is to give back to reality its original sacred significance.

* In general, I choose actors because of what they are as human beings, not because of what they can do. Terence Stamp was offended by this because I never asked him to demonstrate his acting ability. It was like stealing from him, using his reality. I had a similar experience with Anna Magnani on ‘Mamma Roma.’ She also felt I was stealing from her.

* I’m in love with New York. I have a passion beyond words for it. Like Romeo and Juliet—love at first sight. It is the most beautiful city in the world. I love the huge mingling of enormous amounts of people, races. The mixture of cruelty and innocence. New York is a piece of mythical reality, as beautiful as the Sahara Desert.

A Film Maker's Life (1971)



* Power has two ways of bringing racist hatred against the poor. The first point: leave them poor and a poor person comes to be hated. Met them policemen and they're accused of being killers. The moment a poor person becomes a killer he's open to racist hatred. This is horrible, we shouldn't experience this. I am obviously against the police. It's the arm upon which every power structure is build. And the power structure always tends towards the Right. I do, however, refuse to share in any type of racial hatred.

* I had a strong love for my father until the age of three. The fundamental task I set myself is that of being rigorously disciplined. By this I mean, rigorously disciplined as the intellectual, I was decidedly a Marxist straight after the war. I had to defend myself against an excess and clarity, against an excess of familiarity and, almost, banality.

* My problem is an artistic one, a formal one and art, as you know, is never clear. My films are the works of an author with very signual individual characteristics.

* I've never talked about the importance of the family, I'm against the family, the family is an archaic Remnant. During my childhood I had certain conflicts with my family whose background was definitely middle-class. My father represented the worst element I could imagine. It's rather difficult to talk about my relationship with my father and mother because I know something about psychoanalysis. What I can say is that I have great love for my mother. My origins are fairly typical of petty borgoise, Italian society, I'm a product of unity of Italy as a Republic.

* I've never wanted to make a conclusive statement. I've always posed various problems and left them open to consideration.

* I've stated various times that "Oedipus Rex" is an autobiography: my father who was an officer and my mother was more or less the woman played by Silvana Mangano. I live the Oedipus complex in a kind of laboratory fashion, in an almost elementary and schematic way.

* When I make a film I'm always in reality, among the trees and among the people; there's no symbolic or conventional filter between me and reality as there's in literature. The cinema is an explosion of my love for reality. I have never conceived of making a film that would be a work of a group, I've always thought of a film as a work of an author, not only the script and the direction but the choices of sets and locations, the characters, even the clothes. I choose everything, not to mention the music.

* I've never been religious unless you can count a very ridiculous religious crisis at the fourteen years of age, I was still very innocent. Then from one day to the next, I didn't believe anymore. I was born Catholic by mere chance because I was born in Italy, but I was never particularly Catholic and I came to my criticism of the Church as every Italian intellectual has. I had a very agnostic upbringing; this led me to Marxism so therefore I arrived at it in the most obvious and natural way. The Church in Italy has always been an instrument of power but I don't think it's an ideological power as opposed to its practical power, as any influence over the Italian peasant. Italian's not religious. I don't want to say pagan because that would be generic but he's pre-Catholic in as much as he's remained in the state in which Catholicism found him, above all, in the South. It is a superficial cross over the Italian people and I believe it would only take a strong confrontation to destroy these ideals.

* I think that the Gospel is one of the many books of religious propaganda that had been written. There will come a time when the Gospel will be linguistically incomprehensible to humanity. The Gospel is tied to time and its historic place. The Church can only survive if it continues to change and put into continual crisis its own institutionality. I'm now preparing a film on Saint Paul. In the film we bring into question not the validity of the Church but its mere motive of existence.

* The Church will probably be able to continue for centuries to come if it creates an ecclesiastic assembly that continually negates and re-creates itself. My criticism is against the Church as power as it is today. I said that when I was a boy I believed, I prayed... but it wasn't anything very serious. I think there're some facets in my character that have something of mystifying quality. I'd say this a part of the trauma that dominates my existence. Nature doesn't seem natural to me, it is a sort of an act between me and the naturalness of nature. Philosophically, nothing that I have ever done has been more fitted to me than "Gospel According to St. Matthew" because of my tendency always to see something sacred, mythical and epic quality in everything, even in the most simple and banal objects and events.

* The working class belongs to the modern world, it belongs to our time, our history. Here in Italy the policemen for the most part are poor boys who come from very poor families in the South. I hope that the union confrontations and the student movement will bring us new advances in the people's movement and in revolutionary movement. The idea of Marxism being rational is true when it's a science but the moment Marxism is an action or revolution, it ceases to be rational. The moment a Marxist goes into action, purely pragmatic elements or purely revolutionary sentiments existed contains something of a religious or mystical nature.

Filmography



Feature films


All titles listed below were written and directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini unless stated otherwise. Although obviously ''Oedipus Rex'' and ''Medea'' are loosely based on plays by Sophocles and Euripides respectively, significant liberties were taken with original texts and titles do not credit anyone except Pasolini. The latter is also true in the case of St. Matthew.


Documentaries


* ''Sopralluoghi in Palestina per Il Vangelo secondo Matteo'' (1964)
* ''Comizi d'amore'' (''The Assembly of Love'', 1964)
* ''Appunti per un film sull'India'' (1969)
* ''Appunti per un romanzo dell'immondizia'' (1970)
* ''Le mura di Sana'a'' (1971)
* ''12 Dicembre 1972 (long and short version) (1972)
* ''Pasolini e la forma della città'' (1975)
* ''Appunti per un'Orestiade Africana'' (''Notes Towards an African Orestes'', 1975)

Episodes in omnibus films


* ''La ricotta'' in ''RoGoPaG'' (1963)
* First segment of ''La rabbia'' (1963)
* ''La Terra vista dalla Luna'' in ''Le streghe'' (''The Witches'', 1967)
* ''Che cosa sono le nuvole?'' ''Capriccio all'Italiana'' (1968)
* ''La sequenza del fiore di carta'' in ''Amore e rabbia'' (1969)

Selected bibliography




Narrative


* ''Poems''
* ''Ragazzi di vita'' (''The Ragazzi'', 1955)
* ''Una vita violenta'' (''A Violent Life'', 1959)
* ''Il sogno di una cosa''(1962)
* ''Amado Mio - Atti Impuri'' (1982, originally composed in 1962)
* ''Alì dagli occhi azzurri'' (1965)
* ''Reality'' (''The Poets' Encyclopedia'', 1979)
* ''Petrolio'' (1992, incomplete)

Poetry


* ''La meglio gioventù'' (1954)
* ''Le ceneri di Gramsci'' (1957)
* ''L'usignolo della chiesa cattolica'' (1958)
* ''La religione del mio tempo'' (1961)
* ''Poesia in forma di rosa'' (1964)
* ''Trasumanar e organizzar'' (1971)
* ''La nuova gioventù'' (1975)
* ''Roman Poems''. Pocket Poets #41 (1986)

Essays


* ''Passione e ideologia'' (1960)
* ''Canzoniere italiano, poesia popolare italiana'' (1960)
* ''Empirismo eretico'' (1972)
* ''Lettere luterane'' (1976)
* ''Le belle bandiere'' (1977)
* ''Descrizioni di descrizioni'' (1979)
* ''Il caos'' (1979)
* ''La pornografia è noiosa'' (1979)
* ''Scritti corsari'' (1975)
* ''Lettere (1940–1954)'' (''Letters, 1940-54'', 1986)

Theatre


* ''Orgia'' (1968)
* ''Porcile'' (1968)
* ''Calderón'' (1973)
* ''Affabulazione'' (1977)
* ''Pilade'' (1977)
* ''Bestia da stile'' (1977)

Footnotes






Additional reading



* Aichele, George. "Translation as De-canonization: Matthew's Gospel According to Pasolini - filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini - Critical Essay." ''Cross Currents'' (2002). FindArticles.
* Distefano, John. "Picturing Pasolini." ''Art Journal'' (1997).
* Eloit, Audrene. "Oedipus Rex by Pier Paolo Pasolini The Palimpsest: Rewriting and the Creation of Pasolini's Cinematic Language." ''Literature Film Quarterly'' (2004). FindArticles.
* Forni, Kathleen. "A "cinema of poetry": What Pasolini Did to Chancer's Canterbury Tales." ''Literature Film Quarterly'' (2002). FindArticles.
* Frisch, Anette. "Francesco Vezzolini: Pasolini Reloaded." Interview, Rutgers University Alexander Library, New Brunwick, NJ.
* Green, Martin. "The Dialectic Adaptation."
* Greene, Naomi. ''Pier Paolo Pasilini: Cinema as Heresy''. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1990.
* Meyer-Krahmer, Benjamin. "Transmediality and Pastiche as Techniques in Pasolini’s Art Production", in: P.P.P. - Pier Paolo Pasolini and death, eds. Bernhart Schwenk, Michael Semff, Ostfildern 2005, p.109 - 118
* Passannanti, Erminia. "Deconstruction and redefinition of the Italian Catholic Identity in Pier Paolo Pasolini's ''La ricotta'', in ''Italy on Screen: Italian Identity in the National Imaginary and International Symbolic'', Lucy Bolton and Christina Siggers Manson(eds.), Series New Studies in European Cinema series, Peter Lang (2009).
* Pugh, Tison. "Chaucerian Fabliaux, Cinematic Fabliau: Pier Paolo Pasolini's I racconti di Canterbury.", ''Literature Film Quarterly'' (2004). FindArticles.
* Restivo, Angelo. ''The Cinema of Economic Miracles: Visuality and Modernization in the Italian Art Film''. London: Duke UP, 2002.
* Rohdie, Sam. ''The Passion of Pier Paolo Pasolini''. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana UP, 1995.
* Rumble, Patrick A. ''Allegories of contamination: Pier Paolo Pasolini's Trilogy of life''. Toronto: University of Toronto P, 1996.
* Schwartz, Barth D. ''Pasolini Requiem''. 1st ed. New York: Pantheon Books, 1992.
* Siciliano, Enzo. ''Pasolini: A Biography''. Trans. John Shepley. New York: Random House, 1982.
* Viano, Maurizio. ''A Certain Realism: Making Use of Pasolini's Film Theory and Practice''. Berkeley: University of California P, 1993.
* Willimon, William H. "Faithful to the script", ''Christian Century'' (2004).



Source: Wikipedia