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Province Of Trento
The Province of Trento (Provincia autonoma di Trento, Autonome Provinz Trient),
[Official Journals of the Provincia autonoma di Trento/Autonome Provinz Trient: [http://www.trentinoagricoltura.it/Management/Pages/Upload/Standard/L.P.10_2001.pdf No. 1 (2002)], [http://www.euroacustici.org/tecnici/tec_trentino.pdf No. 17 (2003)], [http://www.regione.taa.it/GIUNTA/bu/2003/partequarta/bupdf/BO230304.pdf No. 23 (2003)], [http://www.guidealpinetrentino.it/documenti/2002-8-LP-Regolamento.pdf No. 39 (2003)], [http://www.nonprofitonline.it/testi/4413916.PDF No. 45 (2006)] [http://www.nonprofitonline.it/testi/4498215.PDF No. 20 (2007)] and [http://www.federalismi.it/ApplOpenFilePDF_Output.cfm?custom_header=01&dpath=document&dfile=03072007033650.pdf No. 25 (2007)]] often referred simply as Trentino, is an autonomous province of Italy). In the local languages, typically the word ''Trentin'' is used. The territory of the province equals to the southern part of the historic Trentino region (Trentino tirolese, Welschtirol).
The Province of Trento is one of the two provinces which make up Italy's region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which itself is an autonomous region. The province is divided into 223 ''comuni'' (municipalities). Its capital is the town of Trento. The province has an area of 6,207 km² and a total population of 507,030 (2006). The region is renowned for its mountains, such as the Dolomites, which are part of the Alps.
The name Trentino derives from the capital city of the province, Trento. Originally, the term was used by the local population only to refer to the city itself and its immediate surroundings, while the common name for the whole region under Austrian rule was Welschtirol.
In this wider sense, Trentino was first coined around 1848 in an article by a cleric member of the Frankfurt National Assembly, and henceforward became popular among leftist intellectual circles. [[http://freeweb.dnet.it/ahmeran/ettore_tolomei.htm Ettore Tolomei - Der Totengräber Süd-Tirols]]
The Province of Trento is an almost entirely mountainous province with a main valley crossing it in its center. This valley is called ''Valle dell'Adige'' (Adige Valley), named after the Adige river flowing within it. The principal towns of Trentino lay on the Adige Valley as it is the largest one and has been a historical passage connecting Italy with Northern Europe. Among other important valleys are Val di Non, known for its apple production, Val di Sole, Val Giudicarie, which has been historically contended by Trento and Brescia, Val di Fiemme and many others.
The province has an area of 6,214 km², and a total population of 507,030 (2006). There are 223 ''comuni'' (singular: ''comune''), in the province[http://www.upinet.it/indicatore.asp?id_statistiche=6].
Administratively, the province enjoys a large degree of autonomy in the following sectors: health, education, welfare and transport infrastructure. The provincial council comprises 35 members, one of whom must by law be drawn from the Ladin minority. The president of the provincial council alternates with the President of the province of Bolzano-Bozen as president of the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region. In the last elections in 2008, the strongest party became the Democratic Party (''Partito Democratico del Trentino'') with 8 deputies, Union for Trentino (7), Lega Nord Trentino (6), The People of Freedom (5), Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (3), Divina Civic List (2), Greens and Democrats of Trentino (1), Ladin Autonomist Union (1), Italy of Values (1) and Administer Trentino (1).
Due the division of the territory into the 223 ''comuni'', often of small or even tiny size, in the late 1970s larger units called ''comprensori'' ("communities") were introduced. The council of each ''comprensorio'' is elected by the ''comuni'' forming it. However, this tier of government has provoked criticism, and a reform is underway, aiming at the creation of 16 more homogenous "Valley Communities".
The current ''comprensori'' have the following (population data as of December 31, 2004):
As of May 31, 2005, the only ''comuni'' with a population over 20,000 were Trento and Rovereto.
Despite the overwhelmingly mountainous nature of the territory, agriculture remains important. Farms often join together to form larger cooperatives. The most important produce comprises: apples (50% of national production, together with South Tyrol) and other fruit, vegetables (mainly in the Val di Gresta) and grape: important especially for its quality, the latter is used for the production of renowned wines and sparkling wines.
The main industries, often small- and medium-sized, are concentrated in Valsugana, Vallagarina and the Adige Valleys. Sectors include textiles, mechanics, wood and paper productions. Also important is the production of hydro-electric energy.
Tourism is the mainstay of the provincial economy. The main resorts include: Madonna di Campiglio, San Martino di Castrozza, Fiera di Primiero, Canazei, Moena, Cavalese, Folgaria, Folgarida-Marilleva, Riva del Garda and Levico Terme, Comano Terme and Roncegno, these last three being renowned thermal stations.
The Region of Trentino is crossed by the main road and rail connections between Italy and Germany. These include the Brenner A22 motorway and road which passes through the Etsch/Adige Valley. A regional project of switching much of the road traffic to railways is currently under consideration, including the construction of a tunnel under the Brenner Pass.
The province has two more railways: the Valsugana Line, connecting Trento to Venice and the Trento-Malè-Marilleva.
The province of Trento is home to three linguistic minorities, protected by the regional and provincial statutes. The most numerous is the Ladin minority in the Fassa Valley (''comuni'' of Campitello di Fassa, Canazei, Mazzin, Moena, Pozza di Fassa, Soraga, Vigo di Fassa). The German Mócheno language is spoken in the ''comuni'' of Frassilongo, Fierozzo and Palù del Fersina, while the Cimbrian language is spoken in Luserna.
The history of Trentino begins in the mid-Stone Age the valleys of what is now Trentino were already inhabited by man, the main settlements being in the valley of the Adige River, thanks to its milder climate.
Research in agriculture
The Province of Trento, since January 2008, has established the Edmund Mach Foundation to promote research, training and services in the agricultural, agri-food and environmental fields.