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Trieste



Trieste (Trieste, ; Trst; Triest) is a city and seaport in north eastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of land lying between the Adriatic Sea and Italy's border with Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south, east and north of the city. Trieste is located at the head of the Gulf of Trieste and throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of Germanic, Latin and Slavic cultures. In 2009 it had a population of about 205,000 and it is the capital of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trieste province.

Trieste was part of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1382 until 1918. In the 19th century it was the most important port of one of the Great Powers of Europe. As a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (after Vienna, Budapest, and Prague). In the fin-de-siecle period, it emerged as an important hub for literature and music. However, the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Trieste's annexation to Italy after World War I led to a decline of its economic and cultural importance and, throughout the Cold War, Trieste was a peripheral city.

Today, Trieste is a border town. The population is an ethnic mix of the neighbouring regions. The dominant local dialect of Trieste is called Triestine language ("Triestin" - triɛsˈtin), a form of Venetian. This dialect and the official Italian language are spoken in the city centre, while Slovene is spoken in several of the immediate suburbs. The Triestin and the Slovene languages are considered autochthonous of the area. There are also small numbers of Serbian, Croatian, German, Hungarian speakers.

The economy depends on the port and on trade with its neighbouring regions. Trieste is a lively and cosmopolitan city, with more than 7.7% of its population being from abroad, and it is rebuilding some of its former cultural, economic and political influence. The city is a major centre in the EU for trade, politics, culture, shipbuilding, education, transport and commerce. Trieste is also Italy and the Mediterranean's leading coffee port, the hometown of "''Illy Caffè''" and the supplier of more than 40% of Italy's coffeehttp://infopoint.ictp.it/a-brief-history-of-trieste-1/a-brief-history-of-trieste/geography-and-economy. The city is part of the "''Corridor 5''", which aims at ensuring a bigger transport connection between countries in Western Europe and Eastern European nations, such as Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary, Ukraine and Bosniahttp://www.esteri.it/MAE/EN/Politica_Estera/Aree_Geografiche/Europa/Le_reti_infrastrutturali.htm. This will be also a great impetus for a further boost to the economy of Trieste. Trieste is also home to some Italian mega-companies, such as Assicurazioni Generali, which was in 2005, Italy's 2nd and the world's 24th biggest company by revenue, after Hitachi and Carrefourhttp://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2005/index.html.

Geography




Satellite view of Trieste.

Trieste is situated on the extreme limit of the Italian northeast, near the border with the Slovenia, in the more northern part of high Adriatic and lies on the Gulf of Trieste. The urban territory is mostly built upon a hill side that becomes a mountain: it is situated at the foot of an imposing escarpment that from the Kras Plateau comes down abruptly towards the sea. The Kras heights, close to the city, reach an altitude of 458 meters (1,502ft) above sea level. The territory of Trieste is composed of several different climatic zones according to the distance from the sea and/or elevation. The average temperatures are 6 °C (42.8 °F) in January and 24 °C (75.2 °F) in July. The climate can be severely affected by the ''Bora'', a northern to north-eastern katabatic wind that can reach speeds of up to 200 kilometers per hour

History



Ancient era





The area of what is now Trieste was settled by the Carni, an Indo-European tribe (hence the name Carnia) in about the 3rd millennium BC. Subsequently the area was populated by the Histri, an Illyrian people, who remained the main civilization until the 2000 BC, when the Veneti arrived.

After the war against the Histri the area became dominium of roman emperor from 177 BC, Tergeste was under the rule of the Roman republic. Trieste was granted the status of colony under Julius Caesar, who recorded its name as ''Tergeste'' in his ''Commentarii de bello Gallico'' (51 BC). The name Tergeste derived not from Latin extraction, but from venetic (trg and este, compare Opitergium, Atheste); morover Tergeste is defined "illyrian city" from Artemidorus of Ephesus (Artemidorus Ephesius) a Greek geographer, and "carnic" from Strabo (Greek: Στράβων; 63/64 BC – ca. AD 24)a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher.

The roman colony seems to be gather from 52 BC when during the roman expansion to the alpine zones: in the cesar age the border was moved from Timavo to Formione (today Risano). Roman Tergeste has a prosper period due to the position as crossroads of Aquileia and Istria; and as harbour, some ruins are still visible. Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) built the city wall 33-32 BC.

In the Early Christian era remain flourish city, and after the end of the Western Roman Empire (in 476), Trieste remained a Byzantine military centre, but in 567 AD was destroyed by Lombards, during their invasion of Italy. In 788 it became part of the Frankish kingdom, under the authority of their count-bishop. From 1081 the city came loosely under the Patriarchate of Aquileia, developing into a free commune by the end of the 12th century.

Habsburg Empire



The Austrian Littoral in 1897.
After two centuries of war against the nearby major power, the Republic of Venice (which occupied it briefly from 1369 to 1372), the burghers of Trieste petitioned Leopold III of Habsburg, Duke of Austria to become part of his domains. The agreement of cessation was signed in October 1382, in St. Bartholomew's church in the village of Šiška (''apud Sisciam''), today one of the city quarters of Ljubljana. The citizens, however, maintained a certain degree of autonomy up until the 17th century.

Trieste became an important port and trade hub. In 1719, it was made a free port within the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Charles VI, and remained a free port until 1 July 1891. The reign of his successor, Maria Theresa of Austria, marked the beginning of a flourishing era for the city.

In 1768 the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann was murdered by a robber in Trieste, while on his way from Vienna to Italy.

Trieste was occupied by French troops three times during the Napoleonic Wars, in 1797, 1805 and in 1809. Between 1809 and 1813, it was annexed to the Illyrian Provinces, interrupting its status of free port and losing its autonomy. The municipal autonomy was not restored after the return of the city to the Austrian Empire in 1813. Following the Napoleonic Wars, Trieste continued to prosper as the Free Imperial City of Trieste (''Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest''), a status that granted economic freedom, but limited its political self-government. The city's role as main Austrian trading port and shipbuilding centre was later emphasized with the foundation of the merchant shipping line Austrian Lloyd in 1836, whose headquarters stood at the corner of the Piazza Grande and Sanità. By 1913 Austrian Lloyd had a fleet of 62 ships comprising a total of 236,000 tons. With the introduction of the constitutionalism in the Austrian Empire in 1860, the municipal autonomy of the city was restored, with Trieste became capital of the ''Adriatiches Kustenland'', the Austrian Littoral region.

A view of Trieste in 1885.

The particular Friulian dialect, called ''Tergestino'', spoken until the beginning of the 20th century, was gradually overcome by the Triestine (the local variant partially similar of the Venetian dialect) and other languages, including German grammar, and standard Slovene and Italian languages. While Triestine was spoken by the largest part of the population, German was the language of the Austrian bureaucracy and Slovene was predominant in the surrounding villages. From the last decades of the 19th century, Slovene language speakers grew steadily, reaching 25% of the overall population of Trieste in 1911 (30% of the Austro-Hungarian citizens in Trieste). A small number of the population spoke Croatian (around 1% in 1911), and the city also counted several other smaller ethnic communities, namely Czechs, Serbs and Greeks, which mostly assimilated either to the Italian or Slovene-speaking community.

The modern Austro-Hungarian Navy used Trieste's shipbuilding facilities for construction and as a base. The construction of the first major trunk railway in the Empire, the Vienna-Trieste Austrian Southern Railway, was completed in 1857, a valuable asset for trade and the supply of coal.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Trieste was a buzzing cosmopolitan city frequented by artists and pholisophes such as James Joyce, Italo Svevo, Sigmund Freud, Dragotin Kette, Ivan Cankar, Scipio Slataper, and Umberto Saba. The city was the major port of the Austrian Riviera, an enclave, the only one very real part of Mitteleuropa on the south of Alps. Viennese architecture and coffeehouses still dominate the streets of Trieste to this day.

Annexation, fall to Italy



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Together with Trento, Trieste was a main focus of the irredentist movement, which aimed for the annexation to Italy of all the lands they claimed were inhabited by an Italian speaking population. After the end of World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved, and many of its border areas, including the Austrian Littoral, were disputed among its successor states. On November 3, 1918, Trieste was occupied by the Italian Army, but was officially annexed to the Kingdom of Italy only with the Treaty of Rapallo in 1920. The region was reorganized under a new administrative unit, known as the Julian March (Venezia Giulia).

The fall to Italy , however, brought a loss of importance for the city, with the new state border depriving it of its former hinterland. The Slovene ethnic group (around 25% of the population according to the 1911 census) suffered persecution by rising Italian Fascism. The period of violent persecution of Austrian and Slovenes began on April 13, 1920, when a group of filo-Italian Fascists burnt the ''Narodni dom'' ("National House"), the community hall of Trieste's Slovenes. After the emergence of the Fascist regime in 1922, a policy of Italianization began: public use of Slovene language was prohibited, all Slovene associations were dissolved, names and surnames of Slavic and German origin were Italianized. Several thousand Slovenes from Trieste, especially intellectuals, emigrated to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and to South America, where many became prominent in their field. Among the notable Slovene emigés from Trieste were the writers Vladimir Bartol and Josip Ribičič, the legal theorist Boris Furlan, and the architect Viktor Sulčič.

In the late 1920s, Yugoslav irredentism started to appear, and the Slovene militant anti-fascist organization TIGR carried out several bomb attacks in the city centre. In 1930 and 1941, two trials against hundreds of Slovene activists were held in Trieste by the Special Tribunal for the Security of the State.

Despite the decline of the city's economic importance, the demise of its traditional multicultural and pluri-linguistic character, and emigration of many Slovene and big percentage of Austrian/German speakers, the overall population continued to grow. The Fascist Regime built several new infrastructures and public buildings, including the almost 70 m high Victory Lighthouse (''Faro della Vittoria''), which became one of the city's landmarks. The University of Trieste was also established in this period.

Several artistic and intellectual subcultures continued to swarm under the repressive Fascist regime. In the 1920s, the city was home to an important avant-gardist movement in visual arts, centred around the futurist Tullio Crali and the constructivist Avgust Černigoj. In the same period, Trieste consolidated its role as one of the centre of modern Italian literature, with authors such as Umberto Saba, Biagio Marin, Giani Stuparich, and Salvatore Satta. Among the non-Italian authors and intellectuals that remained in Trieste, the most notable were Julius Kugy, Boris Pahor and Stanko Vuk. Intellectuals were frequently associated with Caffè San Marco, a cafè in the city which remains open today.

World War II and its aftermath


Armored formations of the Yugoslav Partisans entering Trieste on May 1, 1945.
Foibe memorial in ''Basovizza'' neighborhood.


After the constitution of the Italian Social Republic, on 23 September 1943, Trieste was nominally absorbed into this entity. The Germans, however, annexed it to the Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral, which included the whole Julian March, Friuli, the Province of Ljubljana, Gorski Kotar and the islands of Krk and Rab. The new administrative entity was headed by Friedrich Rainer. Under the Nazi occupation, the only concentration camp on Italian soil was built in a suburb of Trieste, at the Risiera di San Sabba, on 4 April 1944. The city saw a strong Italian and Yugoslav partisan activity, and suffered from Allied bombings.

On April 30, 1945, the Italian anti-Fascist National Liberation Committee (''Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale'', or CLN) of don Marzari and Savio Fonda, constituted of approximately 3,500 volunteers, incited a riot against the German occupiers. On May 1, Allied forces of the Yugoslav Partisans' 8th Corps arrived and took over most of the city, except for the courts and the castle of San Giusto, where the German garrisons refused to surrender to any force other than New Zealanders. The 2nd New Zealand Division continued to advance towards Trieste along Route 14 around the northern coast of the Adriatic sea and arrived in the city the next day (see official histories [http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/the-italian-campaign/faenza-trieste ''The Italian Campaign''] and [http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2-2Ita-c11-4.html ''Through the Venetian Line'']). The German forces capitulated on the evening of May 2, but were then turned over to the Yugoslav forces.

The Yugoslavs held full control of the city until June 12, a period known in the Italian historiography as the "forty days of Trieste" During this period, hundreds of locals were arrested by the Yugoslav authorities, and some of them disappeared. These included former Fascists and Nazi collaborators, but also Italian nationalists, and any other real or potential opponents of Yugoslav Communism. Some were interned in Yugoslav concentration camps (mostly in Borovnica, Slovenia), while others were allegedly murdered and thrown into the potholes ("foibe") on the Kras plateau.

After an agreement between the Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito and the British Field Marshal Harold Alexander, the Yugoslav forces withdrew from Trieste, which came under a joint British-U.S. military administration. The Julian March was divided between Anglo-American and Yugoslav military administration until September 1947, when the Paris Peace Treaty established the Free Territory of Trieste.

This particular political condition is still preview from U.N.O. treaty, every Nation of U.N.O. can ask for reintegration of "T.L.T."

Zone A of the Free Territory of Trieste (1947-54)



''Zone A'' and ''Zone B'' of the Free Territory of Trieste (1947-1954).

Boundary between Free Territory of Trieste and Italy west of Duino.
In 1947, Trieste was declared an independent city state under the protection of the United Nations as the Free Territory of Trieste. The territory was divided into two zones, A and B, along the Morgan Line, established in 1945.

From 1947 to 1954, the A Zone was governed by the Allied Military Government, composed of the American "Trieste United States Troops" (TRUST), commanded by Major General Bryant E. Moore, the commanding general of the American 88th Infantry Division, and the "British Element Trieste Forces" (BETFOR), commanded by Sir Terence Airey, who were the joint forces commander and also the military governors. Zone A covered almost the same area of the current Italian Province of Trieste, except for four small villages south of Muggia which were given to Yugoslavia after the dissolution of the Free Territory in 1954. Zone B, which remained under the military administration of the Yugoslav People's Army, was composed of the north-westernmost portion of the Istrian peninsula, roughly between the coastal towns of Ankaran and Novigrad.

In 1954, the Free Territory of Trieste was dissolved. The vast majority of Zone A, including the city of Trieste, was ceded to Italy. Zone B became part of Yugoslavia, along with four villages from the Zone A - (Plavje, Spodnje Škofije, Hrvatini, and Jelarji), and was divided among the Socialist Republic of Slovenia and Croatia. The annexation of Trieste to Italy was officially announced on 26 October 1954.

The final border line with Yugoslavia, and the status of the ethnic minorities in the areas, was settled in 1975 with the Treaty of Osimo. This line is now the border between Italy and Slovenia.

Economy




During the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Trieste became a leading European city in economy, trade and commerce, and was the fourth largest and most important centre in the Empire, after Vienna, Budapest and Prague. The economy of Trieste, however, fell into huge decline after the city's annexation to Italy after World War I and was a mainly peripheral city during the Cold War. However, since the 1970s, Trieste has had a huge economic boom, thanks to a significant commercial shipping business to the container terminal, steel works and an oil terminal. Trieste is also Italy, Mediterranean's and one of Europe's greatest coffee ports, as the city supplies more than 40% of Italy's coffee. Coffee brands, such as Illy, were founded and are headquartered in the city. Currently, Trieste is one of Europe's most important ports and centres for trade and transport, with Trieste being part of the "''Corrdior 5''" plan, to create a bigger transport connection between Western and Eastern European countries. Also, nowadays, the Italian worldwide insurance company Assicurazioni Generali, is headquartered in the city, being in 2005 Italy's second biggest corporation after Eni, and the world's 24th greatest conglomerate for revenue, and 47th according to the Fortune Global 500 in 2009.

Demographics








As of April 2009, there were 205,507 people residing in Trieste, located in the province of Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, of whom 46.7% were male and 53.3% were female. Trieste had lost roughly 1/3 of its population since the 1970s, due to the crisis of the historical industrial sectors of steel and shipbuilding, a dramatic drop in fertility rates and fast population aging. Minors (children aged 18 and younger) totalled 13.78 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 27.9 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Trieste residents is 46 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Trieste declined by 3.5 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.85 percent. However, in the last two years the city shown signs of stabilizing thanks to growing immigration fluxes. The crude birth rate in Trieste is only 7.63 per 1,000 one of the lowest in eastern Italy, while the Italian average is 9.45 births.

At the end of 2009, ISTAT estimated that there were 15,795 foreign born residents in Trieste, representing 7.7% of the total city population. The largest autochthonous minority are Slovenes, but there is also a large immigrant group from other Balkan nations (particularly nearby Croatia, Albania and Romania): 4.95%, Asia: 0.52%, and sub-saharan Africa: 0.2%. Serbian community consists of both autochthonous and immigrant groups. Trieste is predominantly Roman Catholic, but also has large numbers of Orthodox Christians due to the city's large migrant population from Eastern Europe and its Balkan influence.

The city's most spoken language is Italian though there are many Slovene, Venetian and Friulian language speakers. There are also groups of German and Hungarian speakers.

Main sights




Trieste seafront.

Piazza Unità d'Italia.
Piazza Unità d'Italia by night

Castles


The Miramare Castle.
The Trieste Cathedral dedicated to Saint Justus.
Serbian Orthodox Church of Saint Spyridon, mid 19th century.
Trieste City Hall.
The old city stock exchange.

Miramare Castle


The Miramare Castle was built between 1856 and 1860 from a project by Carl Junker working under Archduke Maximilian. The Castle gardens provide a setting of beauty with a variety of trees, chosen by and planted on the orders of Maximilian, that today make a remarkable collection. Features of particular attraction in the gardens include two ponds, one noted for its swans and the other for lotus flowers, the Castle annexe ("Castelletto"), a bronze statue of Maximilian, and a small chapel where is kept a cross made from the remains of the "Novara", the flagship on which Maximilian, brother of Emperor Franz Josef, set sail to become Emperor of Mexico. During the existence of the Free Territory of Trieste, the castle served as headquarters for the United States Army's TRUST force.

Castle of San Giusto


Designed on the remains of previous castles on the site, it took almost two centuries to build. The stages of the development of the Castle's defensive structures are marked by the central part built under Frederick III (1470-1), the round Venetian bastion (1508-9), the Hoyos-Lalio bastion and the Pomis, or "Bastione fiorito" dated 1630.

Churches


* The St. Justus Cathedral.
* The Serb-Orthodox Temple of Holy Trinity and St. Spyridon (1869). The building adopts the Greek-Cross plan with five cupolas in the Byzantine tradition.
* The Basilica of St. Silvester (11th century)
* The Church of Santa Maria Maggiore (1682)
* The Church of San Nicolò dei Greci (1787). This church by the architect Matteo Pertsch (1818), with bell-towers on both sides of the facade, follows the Austrian late baroque style.
* The Synagogue of Trieste (1912)

Archaeological remains


* ''Arch of Riccardo'' (33 BC). It is a Roman gate built in the Roman walls in 33. It stands in Piazzetta Barbacan, in the narrow streets of the old town. It's called Arco di Riccardo ("Richard's Arch") because is believed to have been crossed by King Richard of England on the way back from the Crusades.
* ''Basilica Forense'' (2nd century)
* ''Palaeochristian basilica''
* ''Roman Age Temples"'' : one dedicated to Athena, one to Zeus, both on the S.Giusto hill.
The temple dedicated to Zeus ruins is next to the Forum , the Athenas is under the basilica, visitors can see his basement .

Roman theatre


Trieste or Tergeste, which probably dates back to the protohistoric period, was enclosed by walls built in 33–32 BC on Emperor Octavian’s orders. The city developed greatly during the 1st and 2nd centuries.

The Roman theatre lies at the foot of the San Giusto hill, facing the sea. The construction partially exploits the gentle slope of the hill, and much of the theatre is made of stone. The topmost portion of the amphitheatre steps and the stage were supposedly made of wood.

The statues that adorned the theatre, brought back to light in the 1930s, are now preserved at the Town Museum. Three inscriptions from the Trajan period mention a certain Q. Petronius Modestus, someone closely connected to the development of the theatre, which was erected during the second half of the 1st century.

Caves


In the whole Trieste province, there are 10 speleological groups out of 24 in the whole ''Friuli-Venezia Giulia region)''. The Trieste plateau (Altopiano Triestino), called Kras or the ''Carso'' and covering an area of about 200km² within Italy has approximately 1500 caves of various sizes. Among the most famous are the Grotta Gigante, the largest tourist cave in the world, with a single cavity large enough to contain St Peter's in Rome, and the ''Cave of Trebiciano'' (350 m deep) at the bottom of which flows the ''Timavo River''. This river dives underground at Škocjan Caves in Slovenia (they are on UNESCO list) and flows about 30km before emerging about 1km from the sea in a series of springs near Duino, reputed by the Romans to be an entrance to Hades.

Others


* The ''Risiera di San Sabba (Risiera di San Sabba Museum)''', a national monument. It is a testimonial of the only Nazi extermination camp in Italy.
* The ''Foibe'' (Fojbe), also sort of national monuments (foiba of "Basovizza" is a national monument). Those are a testimonial of the killings of Italians by Yugoslav partizans after World War II. Yugoslav army took revenge on Italians, often regardless of their personal responsibility, because of the Fascist violence, which lasted from 1920 until 1945, on the Slovene minority of the Trieste region.
* Civico Museo di Storia Naturale di Trieste (natural history museum) containing fossils of early man.
* Civico Orto Botanico di Trieste, a municipal botanical garden
* Orto Botanico dell'Università di Trieste, the University of Trieste's botanical garden
* Val Rosandra, a national park on the border between the province of Trieste and Slovenia.
* Caffè San Marco, historical cafè in the centre of the city

Culture



Education


The University of Trieste main building.


The University of Trieste is a medium-size state supported institution that consists of 12 faculties, boasts a wide and almost complete range of university courses and currently has about 23,000 students enrolled and 1,000 professors. It was founded in 1924.

Literature



Italo Svevo.

Many famous authors lived and created their major works in Trieste. They include:

Italian language authors


* Enzo Bettiza, writer and journalist, born in Split
* Mauro Covacich, writer and journalist
* Carlo Luigi Cergoly Serini (Zriny) (Trieste, 1908 – Trieste, 4 maggio 1987), journalist and writer
* Virgilio Giotti, poet
* Claudio Magris, writer and essayist
* Biagio Marin, poet (born in Grado)
* Pino Roveredo, writer
* Umberto Saba, poet
* Scipio Slataper, essayist
* Giani Stuparich, writer and essayist
* Italo Svevo, novelist
* Susanna Tamaro, novelist
* Fulvio Tomizza, writer, born in Istria (now in Croatia)
* Giorgio Voghera, writer

Vladimir Bartol.

Slovene language authors


* Igo Gruden, poet (born in Aurisina near Trieste)
* Vladimir Bartol, writer
* Dušan Jelinčič, writer, essayist, and mountain climber
* Miroslav Košuta, poet
* Marko Kravos, poet
* Jovan Vesel Koseski, poet (born in Carniola, lived in Trieste)
* Erna Muser, poet and translator
* Boris Pahor, novelist
* Josip Ribičič (born in Baška, lived in Trieste between 1911 and 1925)
* Alojz Rebula, writer and essayist
* Julius Kugy, writer and essayist (born in Gorizia)

German language authors


* Theodor Däubler, writer and poet
* Robert Hamerling
* Veit Heiniken
* Julius Kugy
* Rainer Maria Rilke, poet (stayed in Duino near Trieste)

Authors of other languages



* Richard Francis Burton
* James Joyce
* Jan Morris
* Jules Verne

Sports



Trieste is notable for having had two clubs participating in the championships of two different nations at the same time during the period of the Free Territory of Trieste. Triestina played in the Italian Serie A. Although it faced relegation after the first season after the Second World War, the FIGC changed the rules to keep it in, as it was seen as important to keep a club of the city in the Italian league, while [Yugoslavia] had its eye on the city. In the championship of next season the club played its best seaon with a 3rd place finish.

Meanwhile, Yugoslavia bought A.S.D. Ponziana, a small team in Trieste, which under a new name, ''Amatori Ponziana Trst'', played in the Yugoslavian league for 3 years. Triestina went bancrupt in the 1990s, but after being re-founded regained a position in the Italian second division Serie B in 2008. Ponziana was renamed as "Circolo Sportivo Ponziana 1912" and currently plays in Friuli-Venezia Giulia Group of Promozione, who is 7th level of Italian league.

Transport



The ''Porto Vecchio'', also showing Trieste Centrale railway station
Trieste Centrale railway station
A car of the Opicina Tramway

Maritime transport


Trieste's maritime location and its former long term status as part of the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian empires made its dock the major commercial port for much of the landlocked areas of central Europe. In the 19th century, a new port district known as the ''Porto Nuovo'' was built northeast to the city centre.

In modern times Trieste's importance as a port has declined, both due to the annexation to Italy, for Italy's wider choice of better located ports, and the competition with the nearby new port of Koper in Slovenia. However, there is significant commercial shipping to the container terminal, steel works and oil terminal, all located to the south of the city centre. After many years of stagnation, a change in the leadership placed the port on a steady growth path, recording a 40% increase in shipping traffic as of 2007.

Rail transport


Railways came early to Trieste, due to its port and the need to transport people and goods inland. The first railroad line to reach Trieste was the "Sudbahn" in 1857. This railroad stretched for 1400km to Lviv, Ukraine, via Ljubljana, Slovenia; Sopron,Hungary; Vienna, Austria; and Kraków, Poland, crossing the backbone of the Alps mountains through the Semmering Pass near Graz. This railroad approaches Trieste through the village of Villa Opicina, a few kilometres from the big city but over 300 metres higher in elevation. Due to this, the line takes a 32 kilometer detour to the north, gradually descending before terminating at the Trieste Centrale railway station.

A second trans-Alpine railway was dedicated in 1906, with the opening of the Transalpina Railway from Vienna, Austria via Jesenice and Nova Gorica. This railway also approached Trieste via Villa Opicina, but it took a rather shorter loop southwards towards Trieste's other main railway station, the Trieste Campo Marzio railroad station, south of the central station. This line no longer operates, and the Campo Marzio station is now a railway museum.

To facilitate freight traffic between the two stations and the nearby dock areas, a temporary railway line known as the ''Rivabahn'' was built along the waterfront in 1887. This railway survived until 1981, when it was replaced by the ''Galleria di Circonvallazione'', a 5.7 kilometer railway tunnel route, to the east of the city. Freight services from the dock area now include container services to northern Italy and to Budapest, Hungary, together with truck piggyback services to Salzburg, Austria and Frankfurt, Germany.

Passenger rail service to Trieste now mostly consists of trains to and from Venice, Italy, connecting there with trains to Rome and Milan at Mestre. These trains reach the Trieste central station via bypassing the Gulf of Trieste, connecting with the Sudbahn's northern loop. International trains between Italy and Slovenia now pass through Villa Opicina, bypassing Trieste.

Air transport


Trieste is served by Friuli Venezia Giulia Airport, located at Ronchi near Monfalcone at the head of the Gulf of Trieste.

Local transport


Local public transport in Trieste is operated by Trieste Trasporti, which operates a network of around 60 bus routes and two boat services. They also operate the Opicina Tramway, a unique hybrid tramway and funicular railway that provides a more direct link between the city centre and Villa Opicina.

Other notable people



Architects, designers, and visual artists


* Emilio Ambrosini, architect
* Franca Batich, Italian painter
* Tullio Crali, Futurist painter
* Avgust Černigoj, Slovene painter
* Franko Luin, Swedish-Slovene graphic designer
* [http://www.weissmanfredi.com/partners.php Michael Manfredi], architect partner of Marion Weiss in New York-based Weiss/Manfredi
* Boris Podrecca, architect
* Ivan Rendić, Croatian sculptor
* Viktor Sulčič, Argentine Slovene architect (born in the suburb of Santa Croce/Križ)
* Jožef Tominc, Biedermeier painter

Actors, musicians and performance artists


* Piero Cappuccilli, Italian operatic baritone
* Antonio Bibalo, Italian pianist and composer
* George Dolenz, actor and father of Micky Dolenz of the Monkees
* Tullio Kezich, actor, playwright, and screenplayer
* Alessandro Lotta, former bassist of the bands Rhapsody of Fire and Wingdom
* Lelio Luttazzi, musician and showman
* Mauro Maur, Italian trumpet player and composer
* Denis Novato, Slovene musician
* Lorenzo Pilat, singer-songwriter
* Alberto Randegger, composer
* Enrico Rava, jazz trumpeter
* Teddy Reno, singer
* Victor de Sabata, conductor
* Alex Staropoli, keyboardist of the band Rhapsody of Fire
* Elisa Toffoli, Nationally renowned singer/songwriter, pianist, and guitarist
* Luca Turilli, guitarist of the band Rhapsody of Fire

Entrapreneurs


* Andrea Illy, Entrepreneur
* Ernesto Illy, Entrepreneur, founder of coffee empire
* Francesco Illy, Entrepreneur, inventor of coffee machinery

Journalists and authors


* Sergio Amidei, screenwriter
* Silvio Benco, journalist, columnist and literary critic
* Giovanna Botteri, journalist
* Almerigo Grilz, journalist, freelance war reporter and politician. Was killed during an African reportage
* Miran Hrovatin, war reporter, killed during a reportage in Somalia
* Leo Negrelli, journalist
* Demetrio Volcic, journalist and politician

Politicians and public servants


* Engelbert Besednjak, Slovene politician
* Josip Ferfolja, Slovenian social-democratic politician and human rights activist
* Aurelia Gruber Benco, politician
* Mitja Ribičič, Slovene Communist leader, President of the Yugoslav Government (1969-1971)
* Riccardo Illy, Italian politician
* Fulvio Suvich, Italian diplomat
* Vittorio Vidali (aka Enea Sormenti, Jacobo Hurwitz Zender, Carlos Contreras), Communist agent
* Joža Vilfan, Yugoslav diplomat
* Josip Wilfan, Slovene jurist, politician, and human rights activist
* Boris Ziherl, Slovene Communist leader and Marxist philosopher

Religious figures


* Pietro Bonomo, humanist and bishop, supporter of the Protestant reform
* Edoardo Marzari, priest
* Primož Trubar, Slovene Protestant reformer

Scholars, scientists and intellectuals


* Luisa Accati, historian and femminist theoretician
* Elio Apih, historian
* Václav Bělohradský, Czech philosopher
* Florian Biesik, Silesian linguist, Vilamovian language scholar and poet
* Ludwig Boltzmann, Austrian physicist
* Lavo Čermelj, Slovene physisicist and public intellectual
* Fabio Cusin, historian and public intellectual
* Boris Furlan, Slovenian legal theorist, translator and politician
* Boris M. Gombač, Slovenian historian
* Margherita Hack, Italian astronomer
* Attilio Hortis, Italian literary historian
* Jurij Japelj, Slovene philologist
* Pietro Kandler, historian and archeologist
* Fiorella Kostoris, economist
* Doro Levi, archaeologist
* Pavel Merku, Slovene ethno-musicologist and linguist
* Salvatore Pincherle, Italian mathematician
* Jože Pirjevec, Slovene historian
* Abdus Salam, Pakistani theoretical physicist
* Carlo Schiffrer, historian
* Denis Sciama, British physicist
* Igor Škamperle, sociologist, novelist and mountaineer
* Attilio Tamaro, historian
* Marta Verginella, Slovene historian
* Ivan Vidav, Slovene mathematician
* Sergij Vilfan, Slovenian legal and economic historian

Sportsmen


* Biaggio Chianese, Italian boxer
* Emilio Comici , climber , an early pioneer of the sport.
* Claudia Coslovich, athlete
* Matteo Gladig, Italian chess master
* Duilio Loi, boxer
* Cesare Maldini, former AC Milan captain, Italian football team manager.
* Giovanni Martinolich, Italian chess master
* Giorgio Oberweger, athlete
* Nereo Rocco, football legend
* Tanja Romano, world champion artistic roller skater

Others


* Maximilian of Habsburg, Emperor of Mexico, Archduke of Austria (Schönbrunn 1832 - Querétaro 1867) built the white castle and park on the riviera. He planted plants in the park from his travels around the world.
* Lidia Bastianich, Italian-American chef and TV cooking show host whose family lived in a Triestian refugee camp after their escape from Istria
* Mathilde Bonaparte, Napoleon's niece, daughter of his brother Jerome Bonaparte, was born here in 1820
* Demetrio Carciotti, (Dimitrios Karitsiotis), Greek merchant and important patron of Greece
* Leo Castelli, New York art dealer who established one of the world's leading vanguard galleries in the 20th century
* Louis Antoine Debrauz de Saldapenna, Austrian diplomat, journalist and author
* Gottfried von Banfield (1890-1986), top Austrian Empire fighter ace in World War I
* Anton Füster, Austrian revolutionary activist, author and pedagogue
* Edvard Rusjan, Slovene aircraft constructor and pilot
* Pinko Tomažič, Slovenian resistance fighter and national hero
* Tone Tomšič, partisan hero
* Jules Verne, French author, lived in Trieste and wrote the novela " La Congiura di Trieste".
* Sigismund Zois, Slovene mecenate and natural scientist

International relations




Twin towns — Sister cities


Trieste is twinned with:
* Como, Italy
* Graz, Austria
* Mykolaiv, Ukraine

Trieste
Source: Wikipedia