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Wonders Of The World
Various lists of the Wonders of the World have been compiled over the ages to catalogue the most spectacular man-made constructions and natural things in the world.
The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is the first known list of the most remarkable man-made creations of classical antiquity, and was based on guide-books popular among Hellenic sight-seers and only includes works located around the Mediterranean rim. The number seven was chosen because the Greeks believed it to be the representation of perfection and plenty.
[Anon. (1993)''The Oxford Illustrated Encyclopedia'' First Edition Oxford:Oxford University ]
Many similar lists have been made, including lists for the Medieval World and the Modern World.
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
The historian Herodotus (484—ca. 425 BCE), and the scholar Callimachus of Cyrene (ca. 305—240 BCE) at the Museum of Alexandria, made early lists of Seven wonders but their writings have not survived, except as references. The seven wonders included:
*Great Pyramid of Giza
*Hanging Gardens of Babylon
*Statue of Zeus at Olympia
*Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
*Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus
*Colossus of Rhodes
*Lighthouse of Alexandria
The earliest lists had the Ishtar Gate as the seventh wonder of the world instead of the Lighthouse of Alexandria.
The Greek category was not Wonders but "''thaumata''"(Greek: Θαύματα), which translates closer to "things to be seen". The list that we know today was compiled in the Middle Ages—by which time many of the sites were no longer in existence. Today, the only ancient world wonder that still exists is the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Wonders of the Medieval World
Many lists of wonders of the world are said to have existed during the Middle Ages, although it is unlikely that these lists originated at that time because the word medieval was not even invented until the Enlightenment-era, and the concept of a Middle Age did not become popular until the 16th century. Brewer's refers to them as "later list[s]"
[ suggesting the lists were created after the Middle Ages. ]
Many of the structures on these lists were built much earlier than the Medieval Ages, but were well known.
[Hereward Carrington (1880–1958), "The Seven Wonders of the World: ancient, medieval and modern", reprinted in the ''Carington Collection'' (2003) ISBN 0-7661-4378-3, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0766143783&id=ZkPdBa1g_78C&pg=PA14&lpg=PA14&dq=%22seven+wonders+of+the+middle+ages%22&sig=GTtwOV0OsaL-2jdD0o-qCquTofU page 14].] These lists go by names such as Wonders of the Middle Ages (implying no specific limitation to seven), Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages, Medieval Mind and Architectural Wonders of the Middle Ages.
Typically representative are:
[I H Evans (reviser), ''Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable'' (Centenary edition Fourth impression (corrected); London: Cassell, 1975), page 1163] [Edward Latham. ''A Dictionary of Names, Nicknames and Surnames, of Persons, Places and Things'' (1904), [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC01038938&id=XnuUd4dm2PkC&pg=PA280&lpg=PA280&dq=%22seven+wonders+of+the+middle+ages%22 page 280].] [Francis Trevelyan Miller, Woodrow Wilson, William Howard Taft, Theodore Roosevelt. ''America, the Land We Love'' (1915), [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC00334597&id=UAMqLz88aXAC&pg=PA201&lpg=PA201&dq=%22seven+wonders+of+the+middle+ages%22 page 201].]
*Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa
*Great Wall of China
*Porcelain Tower of Nanjing
*Leaning Tower of Pisa
Other sites sometimes included on such lists:
Wonders of the modern world
Many lists have been made of the greatest structures built during modern times or of the greatest wonders existing today. Some of the most notable lists are presented below.
American Society of Civil Engineers
The American Society of Civil Engineers compiled a list of wonders of the modern world:
New7Wonders Foundation's seven wonders of the world
In 2001 an initiative was started by the Swiss corporation New7Wonders Foundation to choose the New Seven Wonders of the World from a selection of 200 existing monuments for profit. Twenty-one finalists were announced January 1, 2006. Egypt was not happy with the fact that the only original wonder would have to compete with the likes of the Statue of Liberty, the Sydney Opera House, and other landmarks; and called the project absurd. To solve this, Giza was named an honorary Candidate. The results were announced on July 7, 2007:
USA Today's New Seven Wonders
In November 2006 the American national newspaper ''USA Today'' in conjunction with the American television show ''Good Morning America'' revealed a list of New Seven Wonders as chosen by six judges. The wonders were announced one per day over a week on ''Good Morning America''. An eighth wonder was chosen on November 24, 2006 from viewer feedback.
Seven Natural Wonders of the World
Similar to the other lists of wonders, there is no consensus on a list of seven natural wonders of the world, as there has been debate over how large the list should be. One of the many lists was compiled by CNN:
*Great Barrier Reef
*Harbour of Rio de Janeiro
New7Wonders of Nature is a contemporary effort to create a list of seven natural wonders chosen by people through a global poll, organized by New Open World Corporation (NOWC), which ran the New Seven Wonders of the World campaign.
Seven Natural Wonders: is a not for profit endeavour created to protect the seven natural wonders that have already been established.
Seven Wonders of the Underwater World
The Seven Underwater Wonders of the World was a list drawn up by CEDAM International, an American-based non-profit group for divers, dedicated to ocean preservation and research.
In 1989 CEDAM brought together a panel of marine scientists, including Dr. Eugenie Clark, to pick underwater areas which they considered to be worthy of protection. The results were announced at The National Aquarium in Washington DC by actor Lloyd Bridges, star of TV's ''Sea Hunt'':
*Belize Barrier Reef
*Great Barrier Reef
*Northern Red Sea
Seven Wonders of the Industrial World
British author Deborah Cadbury wrote ''Seven Wonders of the Industrial World'', a book telling the stories of seven great feats of engineering of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In 2003 the BBC made a seven-part documentary series on the book, with each episode dramatising the construction one of the wonders. The seven industrial wonders are:
*SS ''Great Eastern''
*Bell Rock Lighthouse
*London sewerage system
*First Transcontinental Railroad
Travel wonders of the world
Travel writer Howard Hillman is one of many who have compiled lists of the top man-made
tourist travel wonders of the world:
Man-made travel wonders
# Giza pyramid complex
# Great Wall of China
# Taj Mahal
# Machu Picchu
# Angkor Wat
# Forbidden City
# Bagan Temples and Pagodas
# Karnak Temple
Natural travel wonders
# Serengeti Migration
# Galápagos Islands
# Grand Canyon
# Iguazu Falls
# Amazon Rainforest
# Ngorongoro Crater
# Great Barrier Reef
# Victoria Falls
# Bora Bora