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Active duty refers to a full-time occupation as part of a military force, as opposed to reserve duty.
In the Israel Defense Forces, there are two types of active duty: regular service (שרות סדיר, ''Sherut Sadir''), and active reserve duty (שרות מילואים פעיל ''Sherut Milu'im Pa'il'', abbr. ''Shamap''). Regular service refers to either mandatory service (שרות חובה, ''Sherut Hova''), according to the laws of Israel, or standing army service (שרות קבע, ''Sherut Keva''), which consists of paid NCOs and officers.
Active reserve service refers to the actual time in which reservists are called up. This varies from once every few years to a month every year. During active reserve duty, military law can be applied to reservists, similarly to regular soldiers.
In the United States military, active duty refers to military members who are currently serving full time in their military capacity. Members of a reserve component are not generally considered active duty. However, in support of the Global War on Terror and other contingency operations, a large number of Reservists in all branches have been called to active duty in an operational capacity. Many will argue that today's Reserve forces are no longer the "strategic" Reserve of the Cold War. Those Reservists deployed in support of contingency operations, either as a unit or by individual augmentation, are also considered active duty. These terms may also be applied to military forces of other nations, although the details concerning obligations to serve may differ. Verification of active military duty status may be made at www.ServicemembersCivilReliefAct.com.