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High school is the name used in some parts of the world, particularly in Scotland, Northern America and Oceania, to describe an institution that provides all or part of secondary education. The actual term "high school" originated in Scotland with the world's oldest being the Royal High School (Edinburgh) in 1505, and spread to the New World countries as the high prestige that the Scottish educational system had at the time led several countries to employ Scottish educators to develop their state education systems.
The Royal High School was used as a model for the first public high school in the United States, the English High School founded in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1821. The precise stage of schooling provided by a high school differs from country to country, and may vary within the same jurisdiction. In all of New Zealand and Malaysia along with parts of Australia and Canada, high school is synonymous with secondary school, and encompasses the entire secondary stage of education.
Usage by country
In Australia, the term High School refers to Secondary School near exclusively.
Yr 7 - 12. Although this can vary from state to state, some Secondary Schools starting at Yr 8 instead.
Students have the choice to drop out at Year 10, or continue through Year 11-12. The School Certificate takes place at Year 10, the High School Certificate at Year 12. High schools are split into the "Junior" years (7-10) and the "Senior" years (11-12).
In Brazil the term "High School" (also referred to as "Secondary school" and "Ensino Médio") refers generally to schools in grades ten through twelve.
The most common subjects taught in brazilians high schools are: Physics, Chemistry,Biology, Math, History, Geography, Portuguese, English, Spanish, Literature, Environment Preservation, Sociology, Phylosophy, Theology, Physical Education, Writing, Music Theory.
High school in Brazil is aimed to prepare students for the entrace process to college or university (private or public) called "Vestibular." Every year, students are evaluated by ENEM - Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (High School National Exam), the grade obtained in this exam is often used as a part of Vestibular process. The Federal Government of Brasil offers full (100%) or partial (50%) scholarship in private Universities for students well graded in ENEM egressed from public high school in the program called PROUNI - Programa Universidade para Todos (University to All Program).
In Canada the term "High School" (also designated as "Secondary school" or "Collegiate institute") refers generally to schools comprising grades nine through twelve. Although each province has its own system, some provinces have Junior High, while others have post-eleventh grade public schools, also known as Senior High or Vocational school/Institute. Almost all high schools schedule classes running from early September to late May or early June with a two month summer break.
Most Canadian students are required to continue their education until at least age eighteen. After graduating from high school, students can continue their education at College (CEGEP in Quebec) or University, or join the workforce.
Canadian high schools offer many extracurricular activities, mainly sports. The most popular sports in Canadian high schools are hockey, football, baseball, soccer, basketball, track and field athletics, and cheerleading. Senior prom is a very popular activity amongst graduating students.
England and Wales
Despite the term "high school" being created in UK (Scotland), in England or Wales in usage varies:
* In Leicestershire, the label "high school" applies to a small group of middle schools, which accept pupils between the ages of 10 and 14, before moving on to their final stage of secondary education.
* In Liverpool and its surrounding area secondary schools are named high schools (e.g., Broadgreen International School)
* Most secondary schools in Manchester are named high schools (see list of secondary schools in Manchester)
* Most secondary schools in Cardiff are named high schools.
* In Herefordshire, many state secondary schools name themselves high schools.
* In Kent and other English counties which still retain their grammar schools, their non-selective comprehensive schools are often called high schools.
* The Isle of Wight retains a three-tier schooling system. Its five state-run 'High Schools' are so named to differentiate them from secondary schools, which have a different age range.
* In Northumberland and some areas in Suffolk, Somerset, Staffordshire and Worcestershire there still exists a three-tier education system comprising of First, Middle and High school. High Schools within Northumberland and Suffolk cater to pupils from Year Nine to Sixth Form (ages 13 to 18). There is currently a fairly high-profile campaign within Northumberland to save the three-tier system as it has been proposed to abolish it and adopt the standard Primary and Secondary school system as in the rest of England.
In Germany, the term "high school" generally applies to the "Gymnasiums" and ''Gesamtschulen''. German law considers students from grades 5 through 9 junior high school students (German: "Unterstufler") and those from grade 10 through 12 high school students (German: "Oberstufler"). It is in discussion in German whether 9th graders can be called freshmen and 10th graders sophomores since there is such controversial law making 9 graders junior high school students.
A famous example of a school resolving this issue was the Gymnasium Querfurt which traditionally divides the junior high school students from the high school students with classes in two buildings. The school administration decided in summer 2009 that 9th graders shall join the upper graders, and 9th graders are now freshmen.
In India, high school is a grade of education which includes Standards IX to XII. Standards XI and XII are also called Senior Secondary School or Junior college. Some states refer to Standards IX and X as High School, while XI and XII are termed as Intermediate. Other states refer to VI, VII, VIII, IX and X (grades 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10) as Secondary school and XI and XII (grades 11 and 12) as Senior Secondary School. Usually, students from ages 14 to 18 study in this section. These schools may be affiliated to national boards like Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) or various state boards.
In Indonesia, high school is divided into two parts, the junior high school, known locally as Sekolah Menengah Pertama or abbreviated by SMP, and the other part which is senior high school, known locally as Sekolah Menengah Atas and in other terms, Sekolah Menengah Umum which abbreviated as SMA and SMU. There is also one institution similar to SMA, but they were focusing on one specific career major which is known as Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan or SMK. Unfortunately, citizens of Indonesia currently looking down of SMK graduates and they were not preferable to be attended by students. Junior high is a must for all citizens of Indonesia while Senior high is not a must as Indonesia currently applying nine years of study to all citizens. It is managed by the Department of Education in Indonesia and stated in the Indonesia constitution where every citizens have the right to study. Graduate students from SMP and SMA or SMU and also SMK are achieving different educational certificate. All students of Indonesian high school must passed in the National Examination held by BSNP (Badan Standarisasi Nasional Pendidikan), an organization under the Department of Education of Indonesia.
In Iran, "High school" known in Persian as "Dabirestan". which is for 3 years, after the Secondary school (Rahnamai) and before the University-preparatory school (Pishdaneshgahi). After the first year of highschool, the student should chose his general branch (one of these: Mathematics and Physics, Experimental sciences, Human sciences and Art).
In Israel, high school or ''Tichon'' (intermediary school, in Hebrew) is a three-year school period, from the 10th to the 12th grade, yet most pupils in Israel attend high school. High school prepares the pupil to the Bagrut examination, which is obligatory in order to continue to higher education institution and in order to be accepted for most jobs.
The Japanese word for a high school is ''kōtōgakkō'' (; literally ''high school''), or ''kōkō'' () in short. High school in Japan covers grades 10 through 12. Although it is not mandatory, some 99% of Japanese people attend high school. The third year of high school in Japan is allotted for students to prepare for college exams known as "juken" (受験. Others may wish to settle for a job instead. High schools in Japan are referred to by MEXT as "upper secondary schools." However most English-language newspapers and sources use the term "high school". Many school boards also use "high school"; for instance the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education uses "senior high school".
In Lithuanian education system, ''aukštoji mokykla'', which a is literary translation of "high school", actually refers to a college or a university, but not an institution that provides secondary education. Thus, ''universitetas'' (university) and ''kolegija'' (college) are both covered by the umbrella term ''aukštoji mokykla''.
Secondary education is provided by institutions that are approved by the government for this type of education. There are three types of these institutions:
* ''pagrindinė mokykla'' (the general school) - covers ages 7 to 16 (grades 1 to 10)
* ''gimnazija, licėjus'' (gymnasium, lyceum) - covers ages 15 to 18 (grades 9 to 12)
* ''vidurinė mokykla'' (secondary school) - covers ages 7 to 18 (grades 1 to 12)
''Pagrindinė mokykla'' provides only an incomplete secondary education as it is not sufficient if one wants to start studies at a university. People who want to continue their education to obtain the full secondary education diploma, which would allow them to join a university upon completing the ''pagrindinė mokykla'', must either enter a gymnasium, lyceum, or a ''vidurinė mokykla''.
A ''vidurinė mokykla'' is the most universal type of these institutions as it offers all levels of pre-college education, starting from elementary level up to the secondary level.
In Malaysia, the term "secondary school" is almost always used in the place of "high school". Secondary education is not compulsory — unlike primary education — and it begins at the age of 13 in Form One (''Tingkatan Satu'') and goes on until Form Five (''Tingkatan Lima''). After completing Form Five, the students have a choice of entering Form Six (''Tingkatan Enam'') before proceeding to further their studies elsewhere.
A number of standardised tests are taken by students throughout their schooling years. In order to continue into secondary schools, primary school students are required to undergo the Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah (Primary School Evaluation Exam) in their sixth and final year of primary education. At the age of 15 in Form Three (''Tingkatan Tiga''), the pupils sit for the Penilaian Menengah Rendah exam (Lower Secondary Assessment). Depending on their results in that exam, students can choose to enroll in one of several specific streams available upon entering Form Four (''Tingkatan Empat''). At the end of secondary education, the pupils sit for the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia exam (Malaysian Certificate of Education). If they choose to continue to Form Six, they are required to sit for the Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia examination (Malaysian Higher School Certificate). Once the pupils have completed Form Five (or Form Six for certain students), they have officially completed secondary school.
It is mandatory for students in secondary schools to wear the school uniforms as allotted by the government. Boys are required to wear white shirts and olive green short trousers; or olive green long trousers; or white trousers (generally for Form Six students alone). Girls are told to wear turquoise pinafores over white shirts (Form One to Form Five); or turquoise skirts with white blouses (generally only for Form Six students); or white ''baju kurung'' (a long tunic that covers the arms) over long turqouise skirts (Form One to Form Six)
The term "high school" is commonly used as a term for "prep school", it is mostly used in the northern states, such as Chihuahua and Nuevo Leon.
It refers generally to schools in grades ten through twelve.
High school in Mexico requires only three years of study, all three preparing for enter college called "Universidad".
The term "high school" is commonly used as a term for secondary school in New Zealand. "College" is another term often used in the North Island and for private schools, and unlike the United States, does not refer to a university.
High school in New Zealand usually begins at Year 9 or 3rd form, which is for ages 12–14, up to Year 13 or 7th form, which is 17–18 years, though students can leave at the age of 16 (15 with an exemption). Pupils usually stay at 'High School' for 5 years before going into a university or the workforce.
The current and most common qualification system implemented throughout New Zealand's secondary schools is the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA). NCEA 'standards' or tests/assignments begin usually in 5th form (NCEA Level 1) and continue through to NCEA Level 2 at 6th form and NCEA Level 3 at 7th form. Some assignments/tests are completed as early as 4th form, depending on the school and individual students.
High school students in New Zealand are taught a range of subjects relevant to both education in general and NCEA specific requirements. In year 9, the compulsory subjects are Mathematics, English, Physical Education, Social Studies and Science, as well as optional classes, such as Woodworking, Music, and a choice of languages, being mostly Maori, Spanish, French, or Japanese, depending on the geographic location of the school and availability of teachers able to teach the respective subjects.
It is common for students in New Zealand to wear uniforms. Uniform styles vary widely between schools and are generally more casual compared to the more 'formal' uniforms worn in Australia's equivalent schools. It is common for Year 13 students of public schools to be allowed to wear 'Mufti' or everyday clothing of their choice. Although many schools require students of all year levels to wear a uniform with upper years often having a different uniform than the rest of the school.
In Pakistan, the term "high school" isn't often used to describe schools; nevertheless, the term encompasses grades 9 to 11. There are two high school systems prevalent there. First is the local matriculation system which is administered by both Federal and Provincial Boards of Education and includes grades 9 and 10 after which pupils may be admitted into college. The second major education board there is the Cambridge International Exams GCE Ordinary Level conducted by the British Council. Many wealthy and/or educated parents are distressed by the lack of standardization and poor quality of education provided by their local systems and therefore enter their children into schools which provide training for these exams. These exams are taken in grade 10 and 11, after which the students may enter college.
High school in the Philippines refers to education after grade school. It normally spans four years of schooling. Children normally enter high school from age 12 or 13 and completes it when they reach age 15 or 16. Everyone who finishes high school normally receives a high school diploma and a transcript of records (DECS Form 137-a) and often times participates in a graduation ceremony. Except for a few exceptions granted by law, a high school diploma is a requirement in entering college.
Secondary institutions are usually called high schools or academies in Scotland. School names are often officially abbreviated to ''H.S.'' (e.g. ''St. Modan's H.S.''). Unofficially, school names are abbreviated in one of two ways: generally the ''school'' is dropped from the full name (''Stirling High School''->''Stirling High'', ''Wallace High School''->''Wallace High'') but where the school name consists of two words, ''high school'' may be dropped in its entirety (''St. Modan's High School''->''St. Modan's''). Other high schools drop the "high school" entirely, and replace it with "academy" (Prestwick Academy was formerly called "Prestwick High School").
In Singapore, schooling for those in the age range of 13 to 16 takes place in a secondary school, in accordance with the British system in England and Wales. Certain schools are known as high schools such as the Dunman High School and Singapore American School. This suggests that the school follows a U.S. curriculum and syllabus in addition to British "O"-levels or incorporate core elements of U.S. education system, such as equal emphases in both the sciences and the arts, offering a variety of subject options. Due to the intensely competitive nature of the education system, graduates of top high schools, excluding the other public schools known as "secondary schools", students would have attained all the elements required for U.S. college admission as their counterparts in the States, as early as 16. In order to be admitted into a U.K. university, however, the students need to matriculate in a "junior college" for preparation for the university entrance exams known as "A-levels" and "S-levels" (for advanced placement in first year of university, applicable for Oxbridge entrants). These studies are extremely specialized and typically last 2 intense years, some completing it in three years, and is equivalent to academic work of a standard freshman or sophomore in a U.S. college. The most difficult academic routes are the Humanities program (offered to only 100 top scholars nationally destined for Ivy League and Oxbridge universities) and the triple science program (a pre-med track). The easiest routes are those offering Mathematics and Commerce subjects, as these produce a glut of distinctions and/or are unpopular due to perception of quality.
In South Africa, high school begins at 8th Grade. Students study for five years, at the end of which they write what is known as "matric". The system used to be based on Higher or Standard grade. As of 2008, students must attain a pass in their Home Language, Additional Language, Mathematics or Mathematical Literacy and Life Orientation to progress on to university.
Officially the Senior Certificate is to be changed to the National Senior Certificate in 2008 and the system of higher and standard grade has been dropped.
An alternative examination is possible in the Independent Examinations Board (IEB) exams. They are set up by a board, representing many private schools.
In South Korea, students from grades 10 through 12 attend high schools. A student may choose, however, the class he or she wishes to take for liberal arts. High schools in South Korea may also have subject specialty tracks. For example, students who have a talent for science, foreign language, physical activity, art, etc.. may choose to go to an academic science or foreign language and other specialty high school (Hangul:특수목적고등학교, Revised:''Teuksu-Mokjeok Godeung Hakgyo'')These high schools are often hard to get into, especially Science and foreign language, which creates competition to go to a good high school.
Unlike most developed countries, high schools in South Korea are neither free nor compulsory. However, 97 percent of Korean students do complete high school, according to a 2005 OECD study.
Most Korean students may choose to go to common high school (Hangul:인문계 고등학교; Revised:''Inmungye godeung hakgyo'') ; and other students may choose a vocational track high school which emphasizes agriculture, commerce, or technical trade curricula (hangul:전문계 고등학교; Revised:'''Jeonmungye godeung hakgyo'')
High schools are called 고등학교 (Revised: ''Godeung Hakgyo'', McCune–Reischauer: ''Kodŭng Hakkyo'').
The secondary education in Taiwan includes junior high school, senior high school, vocational high school, military school and complete high school. The traditional secondary education institutions were established during the Japanese colonial era (1895-1945)." Today, they include many features from the United States.
After six years in elementary school, the rules typically state that children must enter junior high school, or their parents may be fined. There are three grades in junior high. Children who achieve the third grade can choose to enter senior high school, vocational high school or complete high school. If children want to continue their formal education, they must sit for an exam. Generally speaking, the grade to enter high school and complete high school is highest, while it is lower to go on to vocational high school and military school.
Senior high school has three grades. Graduates from senior high school often continue on to university. Vocational high school has three grades as well. Children who complete vocational high school can then enter a technological university. Complete high school is like that of American high schools, in that it has grades seven to grade twelve.
There are also international schools such as Taipei American School (TAS), National Experimental High School (NEHS) and Taipei European School (TES). These schools offer grades from Kindergarten to grade 12. English is instructed for all courses. Since the curriculum concurs with the corresponding country's curriculum, graduates from these international schools generally do not stay in Taiwan for their undergraduate degree.
The present Government of Thailand has adopted a policy of bureaucratic reform so as to have in place an efficient administrative system with a lean structure. The new system is suitable to the prevailing situation and responsive to the needs for national economic and social development. Urgent measures have therefore been taken for enactment of the legislations for streamlining the different ministries and agencies to attune to global trends as well as the national economic and social changes. The recent bureaucratic reform focuses on obtaining a leaner organization and attaining higher efficiency. It allows greater participation of the people as well as the society. New budgeting techniques are availed of, serving as tools for moving forward the bureaucratic reform. The remuneration system which also includes salaries has been improved so as to attract professional civil servants of integrity who are entirely devoted to the common interest.
Regarding the Ministry of Education, the 1999 National Education Act and its 2002 Amendment as well as the 2003 Act for Streamlining of Ministries and Governmental Agencies mandate the amalgamation of the 3 ministries and agency responsible for education,
namely, Ministry of Education, Ministry of University Affairs, and Office of the National Education Commission into a single Ministry of Education with a new administrative structure.
In Turkey, high schools are called "Lise"(comes from the French word ''Lycée''). At the middle school, students have three exams and they're separated to different high schools according to their success. There are plenty of high school types in Turkey: private schools, private foreign schools (German, French, American, Italian Schools; preferred to learn language and live in that country), occupation schools and the one who needs more success; Anatolian High Schools. Some Anatolian high schools offer one extra year to teach a language very well like the private foreign schools. If you have this extra year, high school lasts 5 years. If you don't, it lasts 4 years, including 9, 10, 11, 12th grade + Preparation Class (one extra year, depends on the school you chose). After that,students have an exam again called ÖSS (shortening of "Exam of Student Placement") and go to University.
The duration of lise has been extended from 3 years to 4 years in 2005-2006 educuation year
Little Rock Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas
In the United States a high school is an upper secondary school which educates children from grade nine or ten through grade twelve, in other words, from the age of 14 or 15 to 17 or 18 (in some states, such as California, many students begin the ninth grade at age 13). Prior to attending high school, many children in the United States attend a middle school or a junior high school (usually grades 5-8, 6-8, 6-9, 7-8, 7-9 or 8-9).
Individual states, counties, and school districts have considerable leeway in how they choose to divide their school levels. Students will generally graduate from high school in the year of their 18th birthday if they were born between January 1 and August 31, but this varies by state depending on the kindergarten cut-off date, which ranges from August 1 in Missouri to January 1 in Connecticut and December 1 in California A few American schools still incorporate grades 7 through 12, but it is usually either grades 9-12 or grades 10-12 although some states split grades 9-10 and 11-12 into a high school and senior high school. For purposes of the Grade Point Average (GPA) and subject requirements used for college admission, grade 9 is usually considered the first year of high school regardless of whether the student is in the last year of a 7-9 junior high program, or the first year of a 9-12 high school program. While high school is generally defined as being grades 9-12, there are some senior high schools that cover only grades 10-12, and typically accept students from a junior high school that includes grades 7-9. Some states consider grades 7-12 to be secondary education, while others consider grades 6-12 to be secondary education.
As a practical matter, while laws in most states mandate school attendance at least until graduation or age 16, many require attendance until age 17 or 18 (unless the student earns a diploma earlier, usually around age 16). Conversely, students who have failed a grade may remain in high school past the age of 18. In general, students over 19 attend remedial classes to receive a high school diploma or General Educational Development (GED) certificate. State laws vary on the cut-off age for students to receive free public education services. Many states have adult high schools for people generally 18 and over. Students can stay in high school past the age of 18 if it is deemed appropriate. They cannot stay past a certain age depending on the state.
On average 71% of American students graduate from high school. A high school diploma or GED certificate is usually required for entrance into a two or four-year college or university and to other post-secondary education programs.
High schools can usually be sub-classed as general high schools, vocational schools (VoTech schools), and college preparatory high schools (prep schools) and special high schools or alternative high schools. Most high schools are general high schools. These schools offer a wide range of educational opportunities intended for the widest range of students possible. These general population schools offer college preparatory classes for advanced students, general education classes for average students and remedial courses for those who are struggling. Students can "mix and match" course levels according to their own abilities or interests.
In some school districts exceptionally high-performing students are offered enrollment at a district college preparatory high school. Traditionally "prep schools" in North America were usually private institutions, though most medium or large public (state) school districts now offer university-preparatory schools for advanced students. Public prep schools draw the top students from their district and have strict entrance requirements. All academic classes offered in these schools are classified as honors, International Baccalaureate, or Advanced Placement. But students in these classes should be aware that real college classes given at real colleges will be about ten times more difficult and demanding, work that got an A in high school may at best get a C- or worse in college. But most students adjust successfully.
Vocational high schools offer hands-on training to students that prepares them for careers in fields such as information technology, marketing, business, engineering and the medical professions. While some graduates of vocational or career and technical education high schools will go directly into a trade, others will pursue post-secondary education. The Association for Career and Technical Education is the largest national education association dedicated to career and technical education.
Special high schools are catered for students who have special educational needs, e.g. because of learning difficulties or physical disabilities. Some special high schools are offered for students who have major disciplinary or mental health difficulties that make it problematic to educate them in traditional high school settings. Some special high schools are assigned as security risks, where the school houses students who are not yet old enough to legally leave school and are considered a danger to other students or teachers, but have not been convicted of a crime. Some special high schools are dedicated to students with drug or mental health difficulties and have medical and psychological staff on site. A few of these schools include a nursery and a child care staff so that teen parents can finish their education without having to find child care during the school day. Special high schools have their own campus, but sometimes are located in a section or wing of a general high school.
Another recent form of high school that has emerged is the online high school. Stanford University's own Education Program for Gifted Youth recently received a generous donation and used it to create the first truly complete online high school, with an interactive and advanced program for advanced learners.
High School in the United States usually begins in late August or early September of each year, and ends in late May or early June. During the excess two and a half months, the students are given summer vacation to rest from the school year. In some cases schools use a year round schedule.
* 9th Grade - Freshman Year Starting at 14 to 15 years of age
* 10th Grade - Sophomore Year Starting at 15 to 16 years of age
* 11th Grade - Junior Year Starting at 16 to 17 years of age
* 12th Grade - Senior Year Starting at 17 to 18 years of age